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Theophrastus

κρόμυον εὐθὺς ἐκ τῆς ῥίζης ἄλλο καὶ ἄλλο παραφίησι, καθάπερ καὶ βολβοὶ καὶ σκίλλα καὶ πάντα τὰ τοιαῦτα. καὶ γὰρ τὰ κρόμυα καὶ τὰ σκόροδα μὴ ἀναιρούντων ἀλλ᾿ ἐώντων πολλὰ γίνεται. φέρειν δέ φασι καὶ τὸ σκόροδον ἐπὶ τῆς φύσιγγος σκόροδα καὶ τὸ κρόμυον κρόμυα· περὶ μὲν οὖν τῶν γενέσεων ἱκανῶς εἰρήσθω.

V. Φίλυδρα δὲ πάντα τὰ ἄλλα λάχανα καὶ φιλόκοπρα πλὴν πηγάνου, τοῦτο δὲ ἥκιστα φιλόκοπρον. τὰ χειμερινὰ δὲ οὐχ ἧττον τῶν θερινῶν καὶ τὰ ἐπίκηρα τῶν ἰσχυρῶν. κόπρον δὲ μάλιστα ἐπαινοῦσι τὴν συρματῖτιν, τὴν δὲ τῶν ὑποζυγίων μοχθηρὰν διὰ τὸ μάλιστα ἐξικμάζεσθαι· ζητοῦσι δὲ τὴν κόπρον ἅμα τῷ σπόρῳ μάλιστα συναναμιχθεῖσαν· οἱ δὲ καὶ σπείροντες ἐπιβάλλουσι· χρῶνται δὲ καὶ τῇ ἀνθρωπίνῃ ὠμῇ πρὸς τὴν χύλωσιν. φιλυδρότερα δὲ τὰ χειμερινὰ τῶν θερινῶν καὶ τὰ ἀσθενῆ τῶν ἰσχυρῶν, ἔτι δὲ τὰ πλείστης δεόμενα τροφῆς. φίλυδρα καὶ τὸ κρόμυον καὶ τὸ γήθυον· καίτοι φασί τινες οὐ ζητεῖν, ἐὰν τὸ πρῶτον ἐπιγένηται δὶς ἢ τρίς. 2τῶν δὲ ὑδάτων ἄριστα τὰ πότιμα καὶ τὰ ψυχρά, χείριστα δὲ τὰ ἁλυκὰ καὶ δυσμανῆ, δι᾿ ὃ καὶ ἐκ τῶν ὀχετῶν οὐ χρηστά· συμπεριφέρει γὰρ σπέρματα πόας. ἀγαθὰ δὲ τὰ ἐκ διός· ταῦτα

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Enquiry Into Plants, VII. v.

while the onion puts out another and another growth straight from the root, as do purse-tassels1 and squill and all such plants. For both onions and garlic multiply if they are not removed but left alone. They say also that garlic produces garlic heads on the stalk,2 and that the onion in like manner produces onions.3 Let this suffice for an account of their ways of growth.

Of the cultivation of pot-herbs; manure and water.

V. 4All the pot-herbs are lovers of water and of dung, except rue, which does not at all like dung; this is true of the winter no less than of the summer herbs, and of the tender no less than of the strong ones. The dung which is most commended is that which is mixed with litter, while that of beasts of burden is held to be bad, because it is most apt to lose its moisture. Dung which is mixed with the seed is most in request, but some cast the manure on while they are sowing, and they also use fresh human dung as a liquid manure.5 The winter crops like moisture more than the summer ones, and the weak more than the strong, as well as those which specially need feeding. Onion and long onion also love moisture, though some say that they do not require it, if at the outset it has been applied twice or thrice. 6Fresh cold water is the best, and the worst is that which is brackish and thick:7 wherefore the water from irrigation ditches is not good, for it brings with it seeds of weeds. Rain

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DOI: 10.4159/DLCL.theophrastus-enquiry_plants.1916