Tools

Theophrastus

4Ἐν δὲ τοῖς ἀνακάνθοις οὐκ ἔστιν οὕτως διαλαβεῖν τοῖς γένεσιν· ἡ γὰρ τῶν φύλλων ἀνωμαλία μεγέθει καὶ μικρότητι καὶ σχήμασιν ἄπειρος καὶ ἀσαφής· ἀλλὰ δεῖ πειρᾶσθαι κατ᾿ ἄλλον τρόπον διαιρεῖν. πλείω δέ ἐστι τὰ γένη τὰ τούτων καὶ διαφορὰς ἔχοντα μεγάλας, οἷον κίσθος μήλωθρον ἐρευθεδανὸν σπειραία κνέωρον ὀρίγανος θύμβρα σφάκος ἐλελίσφακος πράσιον κόνυζα μελισσόφυλλον ἕτερα τοιαῦτα· πρὸς τούτοις ἔτι τὰ ναρθηκώδη καὶ ἐννευρόκαυλα, καθάπερ μάραθον ἱππομάραθον ναρθηκία νάρθηξ καὶ τὸ καλούμενον ὑπό τινων μυοφόνον καὶ ὅσα ὅμοια τούτοις. ἅπαντα γὰρ ἄν τις καὶ ταῦτα καὶ ὅλως εἴ τι ναρθηκῶδές ἐστι τῆς φρυγανικῆς θείη φύσεως.

II. Εἴδη δὲ καὶ διαφοραὶ καθ᾿ ἕκαστον τῶν εἰρημένων εἰσὶ τῶν μὲν φανερώτεραι τῶν δὲ ἀφανέστεραι. καὶ γὰρ κίσθου δύο γένη διαιροῦσι, τὸ μὲν ἄρρεν τὸ δὲ θῆλυ, τῷ τὸ μὲν μεῖζον καὶ σκληρότερον καὶ λιπαρώτερον εἶναι καὶ τὸ ἄνθος ἐπιπορφυρίζον· ἄμφω δὲ ὅμοια τοῖς ἀγρίοις ῥόδοις, πλὴν ἐλάττω καὶ ἄοσμα.

2Δύο δὲ εἴδη καὶ τοῦ κνεώρου· ὁ μὲν γὰρ λευκὸς ὁ δὲ μέλας. ἔχει δὲ ὁ μὲν λευκὸς τὸ φύλλον

6

Enquiry Into Plants, VI. ii.

With spineless plants it is not possible to make such ‘generic’ distinctions; for the variation of the leaves in size and shape is endless, and the differences are not clearly marked1; but we must try to distinguish on another principle. There are many classes of such plants and they differ widely, as rock-rose2 bryony madder privet3 kneoron marjoram savory sphakos4 (sage) elelisphakos5 (salvia) horehound konyza balm, and others like these; and in addition to these we have the plants with a ferulalike stem6 or with a stem composed of fibre, as fennel horse-fennel7 narthekia (ferula) narthex (ferula) and the plant called by some wolf’s bane,8 and others like these. All these, as well as any other ferula-like plants, may be placed in the class of under-shrubs.

Of spineless under-shrubs and their differences.

II. The various forms and the differences between the above mentioned plants are in some cases more, in some less easy to distinguish. Of rock rose9 they distinguish two kinds, ‘male’ and ‘female,’ in that the one is1 larger, tougher, more glossy,11 and has a crimson flower; both however are like the wild rose,12 save that the flower is smaller and scentless. There are also two kinds of kneoron, one white, the other black. The white has a leathery oblong

7
DOI: 10.4159/DLCL.theophrastus-enquiry_plants.1916