τοῖς Νομάσιν, ὥστ᾿ ἐκείνους μιμούμενοι τὰ οἰκεῖα ταῖς ἁρμαμάξαις ἐπάραντες, ὅπῃ ἂν δόξῃ, τρέπονται μετὰ τῶν βοσκημάτων. ἄλλα δ᾿ ἐνδεέστερά ἐστιν ἔθνη Γερμανικὰ Χηροῦσκοί τε καὶ Χάττοι καὶ Γαμαβριούιοι1 καὶ Χαττουάριοι· πρὸς δὲ τῷ ὠκεανῷ Σούγαμβροί τε καὶ Χαῦβοι καὶ Βρούκτεροι καὶ Κίμβροι, Καῦκοί τε καὶ Καοῦλκοι καὶ Καμψιανοὶ καὶ ἄλλοι πλείους. ἐπὶ ταὐτὰ δὲ τῷ Ἀμασίᾳ φέρονται Βίσουργίς τε καὶ Λουπίας ποταμός, διέχων Ῥήνου περὶ ἑξακοσίους σταδίους, ῥέων διὰ Βρουκτέρων τῶν ἐλαττόνων. ἔστι δὲ καὶ Σάλας ποταμός, οὗ μεταξὺ καὶ τοῦ Ῥήνου πολεμῶν καὶ κατορθῶν Δροῦσος ἐτελεύτησεν ὁ Γερμανικός. ἐχειρώσατο δ᾿ οὐ μόνον τῶν ἐθνῶν τὰ πλεῖστα, ἀλλὰ καὶ τὰς ἐν τῷ παράπλῳ νήσους, ὧν ἐστι καὶ ἡ Βυρχανίς, ἣν ἐκ πολιορκίας εἷλε.
4. Γνώριμα δὲ ταῦτα κατέστη τὰ ἔθνη πολεμοῦντα πρὸς Ῥωμαίους, εἶτ᾿ ἐνδιδόντα καὶ πάλιν ἀφιστάμενα ἢ καὶ καταλείποντα τὰς κατοικίας· κἂν πλείω δὲ γνώριμα ὑπῆρξεν, εἰ ἐπέτρεπε τοῖς στρατηγοῖς ὁ Σεβαστὸς διαβαίνειν τὸν Ἄλβιν, μετιοῦσι τοὺς ἐκεῖσε ἀπανισταμένους.2 νυνὶ δ᾿ εὐπορώτερον ὑπέλαβε στρατηγεῖν τὸν ἐν χερσὶ πόλεμον, εἰ τῶν ἔξω τοῦ Ἄλβιος καθ᾿ ἡσυχίαν
so that, in imitation of the Nomads, they load their household belongings on their wagons and with their beasts turn whithersoever they think best. But other German tribes are still more indigent. I mean the Cherusci, the Chatti, the Gamabrivii and the Chattuarii, and also, near the ocean, the Sugambri, the Chaubi, the Bructeri, and the Cimbri, and also the Cauci, the Caülci, the Campsiani, and several others. Both the Visurgis1 and the Lupias2 Rivers run in the same direction as the Amasias, the Lupias being about six hundred stadia distant from the Rhenus and flowing through the country of the Lesser Bructeri.3 Germany has also the Salas River4; and it was between the Salas and the Rhenus that Drusus Germanieus, while he was successfully carrying on the war, came to his end.5 He had subjugated, not only most of the tribes, but also the islands along the coast, among which is Burchanis,6 which he took by siege.
4. These tribes have become known through their wars with the Romans, in which they would either yield and then later revolt again, or else quit their settlements; and they would have been better known if Augustus had allowed his generals to cross the Albis in pursuit of those who emigrated thither. But as a matter of fact he supposed that lie could conduct the war in hand more successfully if he should hold off from those outside the Albis, who
- 1The Weser.
- 2The Lippe.
- 3The Lesser Bructeri appear to have lived south of the Frisii and west of the Ems, while the Greater Bructeri lived east of it and south of the Western Chauci (cp. Ptolemaeus 2. 11. 6–7).
- 4The Thüringian Sasle.
- 5In his thirtieth year (9 a.d.) his horse fell on him and broke his leg (Livy, Epitome 140).
- 6Now Borkum. The Romans nicknamed it “Fabaria” (“Bean Island”) because of the wild beans that grew there (Pliny 4. 27).