Strabo, Geography

LCL 49: 508-509

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ἐν τῇ Τρωγλοδυτικῇ ἡ μεγίστη ἡμέρα ὡρῶν ἰσημερινῶν ἐστι τρισκαίδεκα· ἔστι δ᾿ αὕτη ἡ οἴκησις μέση πως τοῦ τε ἰσημερινοῦ καὶ τοῦ δι᾿ Ἀλεξανδρείας παρὰ χιλίους καὶ ὀκτακοσιους τοὺς πλεονάζοντας πρὸς τῷ ἰσημερινῷ· διήκει δ᾿ ὁ διὰ Μερόης παράλληλος τῇ μὲν δι᾿ ἀγνωρίστων μερῶν, τῇ δὲ διὰ τῶν ἄκρων τῆς Ἰνδικῆς. ἐν δὲ Συήνῃ καὶ Βερενίκῃ τῇ ἐν τῷ Ἀραβίῳ κόλπῳ καὶ τῇ Τρωγλοδυτικῇ κατὰ θερινὰς τροπὰς ὁ ἥλιος ὡρῶν κορυφῆς γίγνεται, ἡ δὲ μακροτάτη ἡμέρα ὡρῶν ἰσημερινῶν ἐστι τρισκαίδεκα καὶ ἡμιωρίου, ἐν δὲ τῷ ἀρκτικῷ φαίνεται καὶ ἡ μεγάλη ἄρκτος ὅλη σχεδόν τι πλὴν τῶν σκελῶν καὶ τοῦ ἄκρου τῆς οὐρᾶς καὶ ἑνὸς τῶν ἐν τῷ πλινθίῳ ἀστέρων. ὁ δὲ διὰ Συήνης παράλληλος τῇ μὲν διὰ τῆς τῶν Ἰχθυοφάγων τῶν κατὰ τὴν Γεδρωσίαν καὶ τῆς Ἰνδικῆς διήκει, τῇ δὲ διὰ τῶν νοτιωτέρων Κυρήνης πεντακισχιλίοις σταδίοις παρὰ μικρόν.

37. Ἅπασι δὲ τοῖς μεταξὺ κειμένοις τοῦ τε τροπικοῦ καὶ τοῦ ἰσημερινοῦ κύκλου μεταπίπτουσιν αἱ σκιαὶ ἐφ᾿ ἑκάτερα, πρός τε ἄρκτους καὶ μεσημβρίαν, τοῖς δ᾿ ἀπὸ Συήνης καὶ1 τοῦ θερινοῦ τροπικοῦ πρὸς ἄρκτους πίπτουσιν αἱ σκιαὶ κατὰ μεσημβρίαν· καλοῦνται δ᾿ οἱ μὲν ἀμφίσκιοι, οἱ δ᾿ ἑτερόσκιοι. ἔστι δέ τις καὶ ἄλλη διαφορὰ τοῖς ὑπὸ τῷ τροπικῷ, ἣν προείπομεν ἐν τῷ περὶ τῶν ζωνῶν λόγῳ, αὐτὴ γάρ ἐστιν ἡ γῆ δίαμμος2


Geography, 2.5

In the country of the Troglodytes, the longest day has thirteen equinoctial1 hours; and this inhabited country is approximately midway between the equator and the parallel that runs through Alexandria (the stretch to the equator being eighteen hundred stadia more2). And the parallel through Meroë passes, on the one side, through unknown regions, and, on the other, through the capes of India. At Syene, at Berenice on the Arabian Gulf, and in the country of the Troglodytes, the sun stands in the zenith at the time of the summer solstice, and the longest day has thirteen and one half equinoctial hours; and almost the whole of the Great Bear is also visible in the arctic circle, with the exception of the legs, the tip of the tail, and one of the stars in the square. And the parallel through Syene passes, on the one side, through the country of the Fish-Eaters in Gedrosia, and through India, and, on the other side, through the regions that are almost five thousand stadia south of Cyrene.

37. In all the regions that lie between the tropic and the equator the shadows fall in both directions, that is, toward the north and toward the south; but, beginning at the regions of Syene and the summer tropic, the shadows fall toward the north at noon; and the inhabitants of the former region are called Amphiscians,3 and of the latter, Heteroscians. There is still another distinctive characteristic of the regions beneath the tropic, which I have mentioned before in speaking of the zones,4 namely, the soil itself is very

DOI: 10.4159/DLCL.strabo-geography.1917