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- JUNO sister and wife of Jupiter, and queen of the gods
- AMPHITRYON husband of Alcmene and foster father of Hercules
- MEGARA wife of Hercules and daughter of the former king Creon
- LYCUS tyrant of Thebes, who usurped the throne of Creon
- HERCULES son of Jupiter and a mortal mother, Alcmene; mightiest hero of Greece
- THESEUS king of Athens and friend of Hercules
The scene is set in front of the royal palace at Thebes. The stage setting includes an altar and associated shrine. The play begins at night.