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EARLY GREEK PHILOSOPHY IV

PYTHAGOREAN DOCTRINES NOT ATTRIBUTED BY NAME [58 DK]

D A Representative Version of the Pythagorean Doctrine According to the First Book of Aristotle’s Metaphysics (D1–D2) General Summary (D1)

D1 (> 58B.4) Arist. Metaph. A5 985b23–986a21

ἐν δὲ τούτοις καὶ πρὸ τούτων οἱ καλούμενοι Πυθαγόρειοι τῶν μαθημάτων ἁψάμενοι πρῶτοι ταῦτα1 προήγαγον2 καὶ ἐντραφέντες ἐν αὐτοῖς τὰς τούτων ἀρχὰς τῶν ὄντων ἀρχὰς3 ᾠήθησαν εἶναι πάντων. ἐπεὶ δὲ τούτων οἱ ἀριθμοὶ φύσει πρῶτοι, ἐν δὲ τούτοις τοῖς ἀριθμοῖς4 ἐδόκουν θεωρεῖν ὁμοιώματα πολλὰ τοῖς οὖσι καὶ γιγνομένοις, μᾶλλον ἢ ἐν πυρὶ καὶ γῇ καὶ ὕδατι, ὅτι τὸ μὲν τοιονδὶ τῶν ἀριθμῶν πάθος δικαιοσύνη

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PYTHAGOREAN DOCTRINES

PYTHAGOREAN DOCTRINES NOT ATTRIBUTED BY NAME

D A Representative Version of the Pythagorean Doctrine According to the First Book of Aristotle’s Metaphysics (D1–D2) General Summary (D1)

D1 (> 58B.4) Aristotle, Metaphysics

Contemporary with these authors [scil. those natural philosophers who admit a plurality of causes, Empedocles, Anaxagoras, and Democritus] and before them, the people called Pythagoreans, who were the first ones to interest themselves in the mathematical disciplines (mathêmata), made them advance, and since they had been nourished by them they thought that the principles of these were the principles of all the things that are. But since, in the case of these [i.e. the mathematical disciplines], the numbers are first by nature, and since they thought that they could find (theorein) in them many similarities with the things that are and come to be—more than in fire, earth, and water, namely that [or: since] this attribute (pathos) of numbers is justice, that one is soul and intellect, that one

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DOI: 10.4159/DLCL.pythagoras-unattributed_doctrines.2016