in templo Apollinis Sosiani, Niobae liberos morientes Scopas an Praxiteles fecerit; item Ianus pater, in suo templo dicatus ab Augusto ex Aegypto advectus, utrius manu1 sit, iam quidem et auro occultatus. similiter in curia Octaviae quaeritur de Cupidine fulmen tenente; id demum adfirmatur, Alcibiaden 29esse, principem forma in ea aetate. multa in eadem schola sine auctoribus placent: Satyri quattuor, ex quibus unus Liberum patrem palla velatum umeris2 praefert, alter Liberam similiter, tertius ploratum infantis cohibet, quartus cratere alterius sitim sedat, duaeque Aurae velificantes sua veste. nec minor quaestio est in Saeptis, Olympum et Pana, Chironem cum Achille qui fecerint, praesertim cum capitali satisdatione fama iudicet dignos.30
Scopas habuit aemulos eadem aetate Bryaxim et Timotheum et Leocharen, de quibus simul dicendum est, quoniam pariter caelavere Mausoleum. sepulchrum hoc est ab uxore Artemisia factum Mausolo, Cariae regulo, qui obiit olympiadis cvii anno secundo.
in the temple of the Sosian Apolloa was the work of Scopas or of Praxiteles. Similarly, we cannot tell which of the two carved the Father Janusb which was dedicated in its rightful temple by Augustus after being brought here from Egypt; and now a covering of gilt has hidden its secret still more. Equally, there is a controversy about the Cupid Holding a Thunderbolt in the Hall of Octavia. Only one thing§ 15. is stated with conviction, namely that the figure is that of Alcibiades,c the most handsome youth of that time. In the same salon there are many pleasing works of which the authors are unknown, for example, the Four Satyrs, of whom one is carrying on his shoulders Father Liber dressed in a robe and another is likewise carrying Ariadne,d while a third stops a child crying and a fourth gives a drink to another child out of a mixing-bowl; and the Two Breezes, who are spreading their cloaks like sails. There is just as much dispute as to the makers of the Olympus and Pan and the Chiron With Achilles in the Voting Enclosure, even though their fame pronounces them to be so valuable that their keepers must answer for their safety with their lives.e
The contemporaries and rivals of Scopas wereContemporaries of Scopas. Bryaxis, Timotheus and Leochares, whom we must discuss along with him because together with him they worked on the carvings of the Mausoleum.The Mausoleum. This is the tomb that was built by Artemisia for her husband Mausolus, the viceroy of Caria, who died in the second year of the 107th Olympiad.f These
- aThe Apollo brought from Seleuceia in Syria by C. Sosius, who in 38 b.c. was Antony’s legate in Syria.
- bProbably a Hermes.
- cThis is most improbable.
- dLibera, the sister of Liber, was usually identified with Persephone, but in this instance was probably taken to be Ariadne. The figure was no doubt that of a Maenad.
- eLit. pronounces them worth the pledging of one’s life; cf. XXXIV. 38.
- f352–349 b.c, but Mausolus died in 353 b.c, not in 351 b.c. which was, however, the date of Artemisia’s death. His status was that of satrap in the service of the king of Persia: hence regulus.