partem eius vomitione biles extrahere, inferiorem per alvum †aqua†174
XLVII. Tormina discutit quodcumque panaces, vettonica praeterquam a cruditate, peucedani sucus et inflationes, ructus gignens, item acori radix daucumve, si lactucae modo sumatur. ladanum Cyprium potum interaneorum vitiis occurrit, gentianae farina ex aqua tepida fabae magnitudine, plantago mane sumpta duabus lingulis et tertia papaveris in vini cyathis quattuor non veteris. datur et in somnum euntibus addito nitro vel polenta, si multo post cibum detur. colo infunditur hemina suci vel in febri.
say that the upper part of it brings away the biles by vomiting, the lower part by stool.a
XLVII. Colic is cured by any kind of panaces, byDigestive troubles continued. betony, except when the cause is indigestion, by the juice of peucedanum, which also, being carminative, dispels flatulence, by the root of acoron, or by daucum, if it is taken as a salad like lettuce. Cyprian ladanum, taken in drink, is good for intestinal complaints, as also is powdered gentian, of the size of a bean, taken in warm water, or plantain taken in the morning, the dose being two spoonfuls with one of poppy in four cyathi of wine which is not old. It is also given before going to sleep with the addition of soda or pearl barley, provided that it is long after the last meal. For colitis a hemina of the juice is injected, even when fever is present.
- aDioscorides (IV, 175) has: ταύτης τὸ μὲν ἄνωθεν μέρος τῆς ῥίζης λημφθὲν δι᾿ ἐμέτων ἄγει χολὴν καὶ φλέγμα, τὸ δὲ πρὸς τῇ ῥίζῃ κάτω καθαίρει, ὅλη δὲ λημφθεῖσα ἀμφοτέρας τὰς καθάρσεις κινεῖ. The last clause has only aqua to correspond to it in the MSS. of Pliny; hence Mayhoff’s conjecture (for the MSS. aqua) sed totam utraque. This suggestion implies that a scribe’s eye passed from alvum to utr]aque. This is the least unsatisfactory solution yet proposed of this particular difficulty, but there are other perplexing features of the chapter besides the one mentioned here. (1) κόπτε τὰς ῥίζας shows that tusa is tusa radix, but nascitur in the sentence above refers to the plant. This change of subject causes no difficulty, but the last sentence of Pliny, corresponding to the first sentence in the section of Dioscorides, contains an ambiguous and perplexing eius. Does this refer to the plant or to the root? Littré translates it “de la racine,” but the words of Dioscorides, τὸ δὲ πρὸς τῇ ῥίζῃ (scil. μέρος) κάτω καθαίρει, can only mean “the part near the root purges by stool”; it cannot mean “the lower part of the root purges by stool.” Pliny translates as though it were τὸ δὲ κάτω μέρος τῆς ῥίζης. The μὲν clause may mean “the upper part of this root,” although ταύτης is strangely placed and could more naturally be translated: “Of this plant the part above the root etc.” Furthermore, it is odd to speak of the upper part of the root and its lower part as acting differently; but it is natural enough for the upper part of the plant to act in one way and its lower part in another. Cf., however, § 79. May it be that a κάτω has been lost before πρὸς owing to the vicinity of κάτω before καθαίρει? μέρος, too, may have been originally before λημφθέν. This transposition of μέρος and omission of κάτω, if pre-Pliny, might well have caused him to misunderstand the passage. What I have said is mere speculation, and I have not thought it wise to alter the Latin text in any way. On the other hand, it is perhaps useful to point out, from an excellent example, the intricate nature of the problems that everywhere meet the translator of Pliny, who is often bewildered and reduced to guesses in which he can have little confidence. (2) Dioscorides has φλοιὸν ἔχουσα (ῥίζα) ἔξωθεν μέλανα, ἔνδοθεν δὲ λευκή: Pliny: (radix) intus habet mammam (Mayhoff suggests medullam) candidam, extra cortices nigros. A little later the Greek has χολὴν καὶ φλέγμα, the Latin biles (i.e. black and yellow). Pliny in fact seems to have had a, Greek text very similar to that of Dioscorides but not verbally identical with it. So perhaps the difficulties dealt with above are even more complicated than they seem at first sight to be.