Pliny the Elder, Natural History

LCL 393: 222-223

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Book XXV

fingers long and pour out their juice in the shade, the cutters first rubbing their head and nostrils with rose oil lest they should feel vertigo. Another juice also is found sticking to the stems and dripping from incisions in it. It is considered good when it is of the consistency of honey, of a red colour, with a strong but pleasant smell, and hot to the taste. This is used for snake bite, as well as the root and a decoction of it, to make many remedies,a the juice however being the most efficacious; it is made thinnerb by bitter almonds or rue and is taken in drink, while rubbing over the body with it and oil protects people from snakes.

LXXI. The smoke of ebulum also,c a plant knownEbulum. to everybody, drives snakes away.

LXXII. The root of polemonia, even when merelyPolemonia. attached as an amulet, is specific against scorpions, and also against poisonous spiders and the other smaller venomous creatures; aristolochia against scorpions, or four-oboli doses of agaric in four cyathi of wine stirred up with it,d vervain too with wine, or vinegar and water, against poisonous spiders, so also cinquefoil or daucum.

LXXIII. Verbascum is called phlomos by theverbascum (phlomos). Greeks. There are two primary kinds of it: the pale, which is thought to be male; the other is dark and is regarded as female. There is a third kind, that is found only in woods. The leaves of verbascum

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DOI: 10.4159/DLCL.pliny_elder-natural_history.1938