Pliny the Elder, Natural History

LCL 393: 212-213

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Pliny: Natural History

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LVII. Agaricum ut fungus nascitur arboribus circa Bosporum colore candido. dantur oboli quattuor contriti cum binis cyathis aceti mulsi. id quod in Gallia1 nascitur infirmius habetur, praeterea mas spissior amariorque2—hic et capitis dolores facit—femina solutior, initio gustus dulcis mox in amaritudinem transit.

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LVIII. Echios utriusque generis3 puleio similis, foliis coronat4; datur drachmis duabus ex vini cyathis quattuor.5 item altera, quae lanugine distinguitur spinosa, cui et capitula viperae similia sunt, haec ex vino et aceto. quidam echion personatam vocant cuius folio nullum est latius, grandes lappas ferentem. huius radicem decoctam ex aceto dant potui. hyoscyamum

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Book XXV

LVII. An agaric grows as a white fungus on treesAgaric around the Bosporus. A dose is four oboli crushed and two cyathi of oxymel. The kind that grows in Gaula is considered of inferior strength; further,b the male is firmer and more bitter—this kind causes headaches—but the female is softer, and at first its taste is sweet, but afterwards turns bitter.c

LVIII. Echios of either kind is like pennyroyald;Echios. its foliage is used for chaplets. The dose is two drachmae in four cyathi of wine; likewisee with the second kind, which is marked by a prickly down, and also has little heads like a viper’s; this is taken in wine and vinegar. Some give the name echios to personata (“masked plant”) whose leaf is broader than that of any kind,f and which bears large burs. A decoction of the root of this is given with vinegar as a

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DOI: 10.4159/DLCL.pliny_elder-natural_history.1938