Pliny the Elder, Natural History

LCL 352: 642-643

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Pliny: Natural History

tubam Pisaeum Tyrreni, testudines Artemonem 202Clazomenium, equom (qui nunc aries appellatur) in muralibus machinis Epium ad Troiam; equo vehi Bellorophontem, frenos et strata equorum Pelethronium, pugnare ex equo Thessalos qui Centauri appellati sunt habitantes secundum Pelium montem. bigas prima iunxit Phrygum natio, quadrigas Erichthonius. ordinem exercitus, signi dationem, tesseras, vigilias Palamedes invenit Troiano bello, specularum significationem eodem Sinon, inducias Lycaon, foedera Theseus.

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Auguria ex avibus Car a quo Caria appellata; adiecit ex ceteris animalibus Orpheus, haruspicia Delphus, ignispicia Amphiaraus, extispicia avium Tiresias Thebanus, interpretationem ostentorum et somniorum Amphictyon, astrologiam Atlans Libyae filius, ut alii Aegyptii, ut alii Assyrii, sphaeram in ea Milesius Anaximander, ventorum rationem 204Aeolus Hellenis filius; musicam Amphion, fistulam et monaulum Pan Mercuri, obliquam tibiam Midas in Phrygia, geminas tibias Marsyas in eadem gente, Lydios modulos Amphion, Dorios Thamyras Thrax, Phrygios Marsyas Phryx, citharam Amphion, ut alii Orpheus, ut alii Linus. septem chordis primum cecinit iii ad iv primas additis Terpander, octavam Simonides addidit, nonam Timotheus. cithara sine voce cecinit Thamyris primus, cum cantu Amphion, ut alii Linus. citharoedica carmina conposuit Terpander. cum tibiis canere voce Troezenius

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Book VII

bronze trumpet by Pysaeus son of Tyrrhenus, tortoise-screens by Artemo of Clazomenae, among siege-engines the horse (now called the ram) by Epius at Troy; horse-riding by Bellerophon, reins and saddles by Pelethronius, fighting on horseback by the Thessalians called Centaurs, who dwelt along Mount Pelion. The Phrygian race first harnessed pairs, Erichthonius four-in-hands. Military formation, the use of pass-words, tokens and sentries were invented by Palamedes in the Trojan war, signalling from watch-towers by Sinon in the same war, truces by Lycaon, treaties by Theseus.

Auguries from birds were invented by Car, fromAugury, etc., discovery of. whom Caria got its name; Orpheus added auspices derived from the other animals, Delphus divination from victims, Amphiaraus divination from fire, Tiresias of Thebes divination by inspecting birds’ entrails, Amphictyon the interpretation of portents and dreams; Atlans son of Libya, or as others say the Egyptians and others the Assyrians, astronomy, Anaximander of Miletus the use of a globe in astronomy, Aeolus son of Hellen the theory of winds; Amphion music, Pan son of Mercury the pipe and single flute, Midas in Phrygia the slanting flute, Marsyas in the same nation the double flute, Amphion the Lydian modes, the Thracian Thamyras the Dorian, Marsyas of Phrygia the Phrygian, Amphion, or others say Orpheus and others Linus, the harp. Terpander first sang with seven strings, adding three to the original four, Simonides added an eighth, Timotheus a ninth. Thamyris first played the harp without using the voice, Amphion, or according to others Linus, accompanied the harp with singing; Terpander composed songs for harp and voice.

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DOI: 10.4159/DLCL.pliny_elder-natural_history.1938