πραγματειῶν ἐθὰς γίνεται· πολύτροποι δ᾿ εἰσὶ καὶ ποικίλαι, μόλις τοῖς ἐκ πρώτης ἡλικίας τὸ ἔργον ἐπιτήδευμα πεποιημένοις γνωριζόμεναι. περιττὸς ὄχλος ἦσαν οἱ γραμματεῖς, ἤδη πρὸς πάντα μικρὰ καὶ μεγάλα φθάνοντος αὐτοῦ ταῖς ἐμπειρίαις, ὡς μὴ μόνον ὑπερβαλεῖν ἀλλὰ χάριν ἀκριβείας ἀντὶ γνωρίμου διδάσκαλον γεγενῆσθαι τῶν τέως ὑφηγη- 4τῶν. καὶ ὅσα μὲν περὶ λογισμοὺς καὶ τὴν τῶν προσοδευομένων κατώρθου διοίκησιν, εἰ καὶ μεγάλα καὶ ἀναγκαῖα ἦν, ἀλλ᾿ οὐδέν γε δεῖγμα | ψυχῆς ὑπέφαινεν ἡγεμονικῆς, ἃ δὲ λαμπροτέραν καὶ βασιλικὴν ἐδήλου φύσιν, μετὰ πλείονος παρρησίας ἐπεδείκνυτο· οἷον σεμνότερον ἦγεν αὑτόν—ἄρχοντι δὲ λυσιτελέστατον ὁ τῦφος—, ἐδίκαζε τὰ μεγάλα μετὰ τῶν ἐν τέλει, τοὺς ὑπεραύχους καθῄρει, μιγάδων καὶ συγκλύδων ἀνθρώπων ὄχλον ἐκώλυεν ἐπισυνίστασθαι· τάς τε ἑταιρείας καὶ συνόδους, αἳ ἀεὶ ἐπὶ προφάσει θυσιῶν εἱστιῶντο τοῖς πράγμασιν ἐμπαροινοῦσαι, διέλυε τοῖς ἀφηνίαζουσιν 5ἐμβριθῶς καὶ εὐτόνως προσφερόμενος. εἶτ᾿ ἐπειδὴ τὴν πόλιν καὶ τὴν χώραν ἀνέπλησεν εὐνομίας, ἐν μέρει πάλιν ταῖς στρατιωτικαῖς δυνάμεσιν ἐφήδρευεν ἐκτάττων, συγκροτῶν, γυμνάζων πεζούς,
intricate and diversified as they are and hardly-grasped even by those who have made a business of studying them from their earliest years. His crowd of secretaries were a superfluity, since nothing small or great was beyond the reach of his experience, so that he not only surpassed them but thanks to his mastery of detail became the teacher instead of the pupil of his erstwhile instructors. And4 all matters connected with accountancy and administration of the revenue he managed successfully.a These indeed, great and vital though they were, did not supply proof that he possessed the soul of a leader of men, but in a more open wayb he displayed qualities which revealed a more brilliant and kingly nature. Thus he bore himself with dignity, for outward pomp is very useful to a ruler. He judged important cases with the help of those in authority, humbled the arrogant and prevented any motley promiscuous horde of people from combining in opposition. The sodalities and clubs, which were constantly holding feasts under pretext of sacrifice in which drunkenness vented itself in political intrigue,c he dissolved and dealt sternly and vigorously with the refractory. Then when he had fully5 established good order throughout the city and the country he began to turn his attention to supportingd the armed forces. He set them in array,e drilled, exercised them, cavalry, infantry and light-armed
- aCf. § 133.
- bπαρρησία seems to be used here in a wider sense than the ordinary “frankness of speech” and to describe a person who shows his mind by actions as well as speech.
- cOr simply “behaved in matters generally like drunkards.” So Josephus, Ant. vi. 12. 7 uses the phrase of Saul’s general conduct. Cf. De Ios. 45, where the adulterer ἐμπαροινεῖ ταῖς ἔλπισιν of the husband. But the description of the θίασοι in § 136 suggests that drunkenness in the literal sense is intended.
- dThis is a curious use of ἐφεδρεύω. The regular sense of of the word in Philo is to watch or wait generally for an opportunity to attack, sometimes to help. So in De Mig. 57 πρὸς βοήθειαν δύναμις ἀρωγὸς ἐφεδρεύει παρὰ θεῷ. In other writers the sense of waiting seems sometimes to be lost, and it is used more generally for “help” or “reinforce” though hardly in the sense required here of improving the morale of the troops.
- eBox gives “detail to special duties.”