Menander Rhetor, Treatise 2

LCL 539: 268-269




1. Ὁ προσφωνητικὸς λόγος ἐστὶν εὔφημος εἰς ἄρχοντας 415λεγόμενος ὑπό τινος, τῇ δὲ ἐργασίᾳ ἐγκώμιον, οὐ μὴν τέλειον· οὐ γὰρ ἔχει πάντα τὰ τοῦ ἐγκωμίου, ἀλλὰ κυρίως ὁ προσφωνητικὸς γίνεται, ὅταν ἐξ αὐτῶν τῶν πραττομένων ὑπ’ αὐτοῦ πράξεων ὁ λόγος τὴν αὔξησιν λαμβάνῃ.

2. Διαιρεῖται δὲ οὕτως. μετὰ τὰ προοίμια ἥξεις ἐπὶ τὸν τῶν βασιλέων ἔπαινον, καὶ τοῦτον ἐρεῖς διὰ πάνυ βραχέων διαιρῶν αὐτὸν δίχα εἰς τὰ κατὰ πόλεμόν τε καὶ εἰρήνην, οὐκ ἐνδιατρίψεις δὲ διότι οὐ τέλειόν ἐστι βασιλέων ἐγκώμιον· αὐξήσεως γὰρ ἕνεκα παραλαμβάνεται ἐν τῷ προσφωνητικῷ τῶν ἐπαίνων τοῦ ἄρχοντος.

3. Ἀπὸ δὲ τοῦ λόγου τοῦ κατὰ τοὺς βασιλέας ἥξεις ἀκολούθως ἐπὶ τοῦ προσφωνουμένου ἔπαινον, λέγων ὅτι τά τε ἄλλα θαυμάσιοι οἱ βασιλεῖς καὶ ἐν ταῖς τῶν ἀρχόντων αἱρέσεσιν· οἷον γὰρ ἡμῖν νῦν τοῦτον τὸν γεννάδαν κατέπεμψαν ἐπὶ σωτηρίᾳ τοῦ γένους. καὶ1 εὐθέως ἐπαινέσεις μάλιστα μέν, ὡς ἔφην, ἀπὸ τῶν πράξεων, οὕτω γὰρ ἄμεινον. 4. εἰ δ’ ἄρα φιλότιμον καὶ σφόδρα ἔνδοξον εἴη τὸ γένος, μνημονεύσεις διὰ βραχέων καὶ γένους, εἶθ’ οὕτω τῶν πράξεων, καὶ μάλιστα

  • 1RW: ὃν codd.



1. The address (prosphōnētikos logos) is a laudatory speech delivered by an individual to governors.1 In practice, it is an encomium, but not a full-scale one, since it does not include all the elements of an encomium. It becomes an address in the strict sense, when it derives its amplification from the actual deeds performed by the governor.

2. It is divided in the following way. After the introduction, you should move on to praise the emperors. You should treat this very briefly, dividing it according to matters of war and peace. You must not dwell on it, because it is not a full-scale encomium of emperors, but is included in the address in order to augment the governor’s praise.

3. After this portion on the emperors, praise of the addressee naturally follows. “The emperors are admirable in many other respects, but especially for their selection of governors.2 How noble indeed is this one they have now sent us for the salvation of our people!” Immediately following this, you should praise him chiefly, as I said, for his deeds, for that is the best course. 4. If, however, his family happens to be public-spirited and very famous, you may briefly mention this before turning to his deeds, especially

DOI: 10.4159/DLCL.menander_rhetor-treatise_2.2019