Menander Rhetor, Treatise 1

LCL 539: 88-89




1. Ἐν τούτῳ δὲ τῷ μέρει καὶ τὸ περὶ λιμένων ἔγκειται. λιμένες δὲ ἢ ἐν μέσῳ τῆς πόλεως, καὶ φήσεις ὥσπερ κόλπῳ δέχεσθαι τοὺς καταπλέοντας ὑπὸ τὰς ἀγκάλας· ἢ ἐν ἀρχῇ τῆς θέσεως, καὶ φήσεις ὥσπερ ποσὶν ἐπιστηρίζεσθαι τῷ λιμένι. καὶ ἢ αὐτοφυεῖς εἰσιν ἢ χειροποίητοι. ἂν μὲν τοίνυν χειροποίητοι ὦσιν, ἐρεῖς ὅτι οὐχ ἡ πόλις δι’ αὐτούς, ἀλλ’ αὐτοὶ διὰ τὴν πόλιν γεγόνασιν· εἰ δ’ αὐτοφυεῖς, ὅτι ἀπρόχωστοί εἰσι διὰ τὸ αὐτοφυεῖς εἶναι, ὅσοι δὲ χειροποίητοι, προχοῦνται.

2. Καὶ ἢ εἷς ἐστιν ἢ πολλοί. ἂν μὲν εἷς, ὅτι ὥσπερ σώματος εἷς κόλπος ἐστίν· ἐὰν δὲ πολλοί, ὅτι ὑπὸ φιλανθρωπίας 352πολλὰς χεῖρας προτείνει τοῖς καταίρουσι. λιμένας δὲ ἐπαινέσεις ἢ ὡς ἀκλύστους, ἢ ὡς νηνέμους καὶ ὡς ἐπισκεπεῖς, ἢ ὡς πολύπλους, ἢ ὡς κατὰ πάντα ἄνεμον ἐκπέμποντας, ἢ ὡς πρὸ τῶν μεγάλων πελαγῶν προκειμένους, ἢ ὡς ἀγχιβαθεῖς.

  • 1secl. Heeren



1. In this section1 also belongs the treatment of harbors. They lie either in the middle of the city (in which case you should say that it welcomes, as if to its breast, those sailing in under its arms), or at the entrance to the site (in which case you should say that the city rests, as it were, upon its harbor’s feet).2 In addition, harbors are either natural or man-made. If they are man-made, you should say that the city did not come into existence because of its harbors, but the harbors because of the city. If they are natural, you should say that because they are natural they do not silt up, whereas those that are man-made do.

2. Furthermore, harbors are either single or many. If there is only one, say that the city, like a body, has but a single bosom. If there are many, say that because of its humanity (philanthrōpia) the city extends many hands to those putting in to shore.3 You should also praise harbors for being protected from the waves, or sheltered and free from winds, or full of traffic, or able to send out ships in any wind, or fronting open seas, or having deep water right up to shore.

DOI: 10.4159/DLCL.menander_rhetor-treatise_1.2019