1. Οἱ τοίνυν περὶ τὰς πόλεις ἔπαινοι μικτοί εἰσιν ἀπὸ κεφαλαίων τῶν περὶ χώρας εἰρημένων καὶ τῶν περὶ ἀνθρώπους. ἐκ μὲν γὰρ τῶν περὶ χώρας τὴν θέσιν ληπτέον, ἐκ δὲ τῶν περὶ ἀνθρώπους τὸ γένος, τὰς πράξεις, τὰς ἐπιτηδεύσεις· ἀπὸ γὰρ τούτων τὰς πόλεις 347ἐγκωμιάζομεν. ὅπως δὲ τῶν κεφαλαίων τούτων ἕκαστον ἐργαζόμεθα, ἐγὼ διδάξω καὶ φράσω.
2. Θέσιν πόλεως δοκιμάζομεν κατὰ τοὺς ἄνω τόπους1 τοὺς εἰρημένους καὶ καθ’ ἑτέρους πλείονας, ἢ πρὸς οὐρανὸν καὶ ὥρας, ἢ πρὸς ἤπειρον, ἢ πρὸς θάλατταν, ἢ πρὸς τὴν χώραν ἐν ᾗ κεῖται, ἢ πρὸς τὰς περιοίκους χώρας καὶ πόλεις, ἢ πρὸς ὄρη, ἢ πρὸς πεδία. (τὸ γὰρ εὔυδρον εἶναι τὴν πόλιν ἢ ποταμοῖς περιειλῆφθαι ἔφην τῶν περὶ χώραν εἶναι.) αὐτῶν δὲ τούτων ἕκαστον καὶ πρὸς ἡδονὴν καὶ ὠφέλειαν κατὰ τὴν ἄνω γεγονυῖαν διαίρεσιν. 3. χρὴ δὲ καὶ καθ’ ἕκαστον τούτων <παραδειγματα ἐκθέσθαι πρὸς>2 τὸ εὐμαθέστερον καὶ σαφέστερον γενέσθαι τὸ σύνταγμα. τὴν γὰρ θέσιν πρῶτον ἔφην κατὰ τὸν οὐρανὸν καὶ κατὰ τὰς ὥρας δεῖν θεωρεῖν. θεωρεῖται δὲ ἢ κατὰ ψύξιν
1. The praise of cities takes the topics (kephalaia) we discussed about countries and combines them with those pertaining to people. Accordingly, we should select location from the topics concerning countries, but origin, deeds, and activities from the topics pertaining to people—these are what we praise cities for. I shall offer instructions and show how we can develop each of these topics.
2. We assess a city’s location on the basis of the topics mentioned above1 and on others as well, including its relationship to the sky and the seasons, to the mainland or sea, to the territory in which it lies, to neighboring countries and cities, to mountains or plains. (I have mentioned that a city’s having abundant water or being surrounded by rivers is included in the attributes of a country.)2 Furthermore, each of these should be treated with respect to pleasure and utility, according to our previous analysis.3 3.For each of these we must give examples to make our treatise clearer and more easily understood. I said that we must first consider a city’s location with respect to the sky and its seasons. These considerations include cold or heat,