Menander Rhetor, Treatise 1

LCL 539: 38-39




1. Οἱ τοίνυν ἀποπεμπτικοί εἰσιν, ὡς καὶ τοὔνομα δηλοῖ, τοῖς κλητικοῖς ὑπεναντίοι, ἐλάχιστον δὲ τὸ τοιοῦτον εἶδος, καὶ παρὰ τοῖς ποιηταῖς μόνον εὑρίσκεται. ἐπιλέγονται δὲ ἀποδημίαις θεῶν νομιζομέναις ἢ γινομέναις, οἷον Ἀπόλλωνος ἀποδημίαι τινὲς ὀνομάζονται παρὰ Δηλίοις καὶ Μιλησίοις, καὶ Ἀρτέμιδος παρὰ Ἀργείοις. εἰσὶ τοίνυν καὶ τῷ Βακχυλίδῃ ὕμνοι ἀποπεμπτικοί.

2. Ἀφορμὴ δ’ ὑποβέβληται τοῖς τοιούτοις ὕμνοις ἡ χώρα ἣν καταλείπει, καὶ πόλεις καὶ ἔθνη, καὶ πρὸς ἣν ἄπεισι πόλιν ὁμοίως ἢ χώραν, καὶ διαγραφαὶ τόπων, καὶ ὅσα τοιαῦτα. γινέσθω δὲ δι’ ἡδονῆς προϊὼν ὁ λόγος· δεῖ γὰρ μετὰ ἀνειμένης τινὸς ἁρμονίας καὶ εὐμενεστέρας προπέμπεσθαι. διατριβὴν δὲ ἐνδέχεται πλείονα, οὐχ ὥσπερ οἱ κλητικοὶ ἐλάττονα. 3. ἐν μὲν γὰρ τοῖς ὅτι τάχιστα ἡμῖν συνεῖναι τοὺς θεοὺς βουλόμεθα, ἐν δὲ τοῖς ὅτι βραδύτατα ἀπαλλάττεσθαι. ἀνάγκη δὲ εἶναι καὶ εὐχὴν ἐπὶ ἐπανόδῳ καὶ ἐπιδημίᾳ δευτέρᾳ. ταῦτά σοι [καὶ]1 περὶ ἀποπεμπτικῶν2 ὕμνων εἰρήσθω.




1. Sendoff hymns (apopemptikoi), as the name makes clear, are the opposite of cletic hymns. This genre is the rarest, and is only found in poets. They are delivered on the occasion of gods’ departures abroad, imagined or actual, as for example, the so-called departures of Apollo at Delos and Miletus, and of Artemis at Argos.1 There are also sendoff hymns in Bacchylides.2

2. The source material underlying such hymns is the land that the god is leaving, including its cities and nations, and likewise the city or land to which he will be going, with descriptions of these places, and the like. The speech should proceed in a pleasant manner, for sendoffs require a somewhat relaxed and rather genial tone. It admits greater expansion, not less as in cletic hymns. 3. For in the latter we want the gods to join us as soon as possible, whereas in the former we want to delay their departure as long as we can. There must also be a prayer for their return and a second visit. Let that suffice for sendoff hymns.

DOI: 10.4159/DLCL.menander_rhetor-treatise_1.2019