Menander Rhetor, Treatise 1

LCL 539: 26-27

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MENANDER RHETOR

1.2. ΠΕΡΙ ΤΩΝ ΥΜΝΩΝ ΤΩΝ ΕΙΣ ΤΟΥΣ ΘΕΟΥΣ

3331. Πρῶτον μὲν οὖν, ὥσπερ ἐξ ἀρχῆς διειλόμεθα, περὶ τῶν ὕμνων ἐπισκεψώμεθα τῶν εἰς θεούς. αὐτῶν γὰρ δὴ τῶν ὕμνων οἱ μὲν κλητικοί, οἱ δὲ ἀποπεμπτικοί, καὶ οἱ μὲν φυσικοί, οἱ δὲ μυθικοί, καὶ οἱ μὲν γενεαλογικοί, οἱ δὲ πεπλασμένοι, καὶ οἱ μὲν εὐκτικοί, οἱ δὲ ἀπευκτικοί, οἱ δὲ μικτοὶ ἢ δύο τούτων ἢ τριῶν ἢ πάντων ὁμοῦ.

2. Κλητικοὶ μὲν οὖν ὁποῖοί εἰσιν οἱ πολλοὶ τῶν τε παρὰ τῇ Σαπφοῖ ἢ Ἀνακρέοντι ἢ τοῖς ἄλλοις μελικοῖς, κλῆσιν ἔχοντες πολλῶν θεῶν. ἀποπεμπτικοὶ δὲ ὁποῖοι καὶ παρὰ τῷ Βακχυλίδῃ ἔνιοι εὕρηνται, ἀποπομπὴν ὡς ἀποδημίας τινὸς γινομένης ἔχοντες. φυσικοὶ δὲ οἵους οἱ περὶ Παρμενίδην καὶ Ἐμπεδοκλέα ἐποίησαν, τίς ἡ τοῦ Ἀπόλλωνος φύσις, τίς ἡ τοῦ Διός, παρατιθέμενοι. καὶ οἱ πολλοὶ τῶν Ὀρφέως τούτου τοῦ τρόπου.

3. Μυθικοὶ δὲ οἱ τοὺς μύθους ἔχοντες, κατ’ ἀλληγορίαν

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1.2. HYMNS TO GODS

1.2. HYMNS TO GODS

1. First of all, as in our initial outline,1 let us examine hymns to gods. Some of these hymns are summonses (klētikoi), others dismissals (apopemptikoi); some are philosophical (physikoi), others mythical (mythikoi); some are genealogical (genealogikoi), others fictive (peplasmenoi); some are precatory (euktikoi), others deprecatory (apeuktikoi); and some are mixtures of two, three, or all of them together.

2. Now cletic hymns are the kind most frequently found in Sappho, Anacreon, and other lyric poets, containing as they do invocations of many gods.2 Hymns of dismissal are found occasionally in Bacchylides, containing a sendoff (apopompē) at the departure of some god.3 Philosophical are the kind composed by Parmenides and Empedocles, explaining the nature of Apollo or Zeus. Most of the hymns of Orpheus are of this type.4

3. Mythical hymns are those that contain stories

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DOI: 10.4159/DLCL.menander_rhetor-treatise_1.2019