[Cicero], Rhetorica ad Herennium

LCL 403: 58-59

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[Cicero]

Liber Secundus

1I. In primo libro, Herenni, breviter exposuimus quas causas recipere oratorem oporteret et in quibus officiis artis elaborare conveniret et ea officia qua ratione facillime consequi posset. Verum quod neque de omnibus rebus simul dici poterat et de maximis rebus primum scribendum fuit quo cetera tibi faciliora cognitu viderentur, ita nobis placitum est ut ea quae difficillima essent potissimum conscriberemus.

Causarum tria genera sunt: demonstrativum, deliberativum, iudiciale. Multo difficillimum iudiciale est; ergo id primum absolvimus hoc et priore libro. De oratoris officiis quinque inventio et prima et difficillima est. Ea quoque nobis erit hoc libro propemodum absoluta; parvae partes eius in tertium volumen transferentur.

2De sex partibus orationis primum scribere incepimus: in primo libro locuti sumus de exordio, narratione, divisione, nec pluribus verbis quam necesse fuit nec minus dilucide quam te velle existimabamus; deinde coniuncte de confirmatione et confutatione dicendum fuit. Quare genera constitutionum et earum partes aperuimus; ex quo simul ostendebatur

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Ad Herennium, II

Book II

1I. In the preceding Book, Herennius, I briefly set forth the causes with which the speaker must deal,a and also the functions of his art to which he may well devote his pains, and the means by which he can most easily fulfil these functions.b But since it was impossible to treat all the topics at once, and I had primarily to discuss the most important of them in order that the rest might prove easier for you to understand, I therefore decided to write first upon those that are the most difficult.

There are three kinds of causes: Epideictic, Deliberative, and Judicial. By far the most difficult is the judicial; that is why, in the present Book, and in the preceding Book, I have disposed of this kind first of all. Of the five tasks of the speaker Invention is the most importantc and the most difficult. That topic too I shall virtually have disposed of in the present Book; small details will be postponed to Book IIId

2I first undertook to discuss the six parts of a discourse. In the preceding Book I spoke about the Introduction, the Statement of Facts, and the Division,e at no greater length than was necessary nor with less clarity than I judged you desired. I had next to discuss Proof and Refutation, conjointly. Hence I expounded the different Types of Issue and their subdivisions,f and this at the same time showed

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DOI: 10.4159/DLCL.marcus_tullius_cicero-rhetorica_ad_herennium.1954