Tools

[Cicero]

nec turpitudinem esse, ne aut histriones aut operarii videamur esse. Ad easdem igitur partes in quas vox est distributa motus quoque corporis ratio videtur esse adcommodanda. Nam si erit sermo cum dignitate, stantis in vestigio, levi dexterae motu, loqui oportebit, hilaritate, tristitia, mediocritate vultus ad sermonis sententias adcommodata. Sin erit in demonstratione sermo, paululum corpus a cervicibus demittemus; nam est hoc datum ut quam proxime tum vultum admoveamus ad auditores si quam rem docere eos et vehementer instigare velimus. Sin erit in narratione sermo, idem motus poterit idoneus esse qui paulo ante demonstrabatur in dignitate. Sin in iocatione, vultu quandam debebimus hilaritatem significare sine commutatione gestus.

27Sin contendemus per continuationem, brachio celeri, mobili vultu, acri aspectu utemur. Sin contentio fiet per distributionem, porrectione perceleri brachii, inambulatione, pedis dexteri rara supplausione,1 acri et defixo aspectu uti oportet.

Sin utemur amplificatione per cohortationem, paulo tardiore et consideratiore gestu conveniet uti, similibus ceteris rebus atque in contentione per continuationem. Sin utemur amplificatione per

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Ad Herennium, III

grossness,a lest we give the impression that we are either actors or day labourers. It seems, then, that the rules regulating bodily movement ought to correspond to the several divisions of tone comprising voice. To illustrate: (1) For the Dignified Conversational Tone, the speaker must stay in position when he speaks, lightly moving his right hand, his countenance expressing an emotion corresponding to the sentiments of the subject—gaiety or sadness or an emotion intermediate. (2) For the Explicative Conversational Tone, we shall incline the body forward a little from the shoulders, since it is natural to bring the face as close as possible to our hearers when we wish to prove a point and arouse them vigorously. (3) For the Narrative Conversational Tone, the same physical movement as I have just set forth for the Dignified will be appropriate. (4) For the Facetious Conversational Tone, we should by our countenance express a certain gaiety, without changing gestures.

27(5) For the Sustained Tone of Debate, we shall use a quick gesture of the arm, a mobile countenance, and a keen glance. (6) For the Broken Tone of Debate, one must extend the arm very quickly, walk up and down, occasionally stamp the right foot, and adopt a keen and fixed look.

(7) For the Hortatory Tone of Amplification, it will be appropriate to use a somewhat slower and more deliberate gesticulation, but otherwise to follow the procedure for the Sustained Tone of Debate. (8) For the Pathetic Tone of Amplification,

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DOI: 10.4159/DLCL.marcus_tullius_cicero-rhetorica_ad_herennium.1954