Cicero, Pro Lege Manilia

LCL 198: 48-49

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Cretensibus, cum ad eum usque in Pamphyliam legatos deprecatoresque misissent, spem deditionis non ademit obsidesque imperavit. Ita tantum bellum, tam diuturnum, tam longe lateque dispersum, quo bello omnes gentes ac nationes premebantur, Cn. Pompeius extrema hieme apparavit, ineunte vere suscepit, media aestate confecit.

36XIII. Est haec divina atque incredibilis virtus imperatoris. Quid? ceterae, quas paulo ante commemorare coeperam, quantae atque quam multae sunt! Non enim bellandi virtus solum in summo ac perfecto imperatore quaerenda est, sed multae sunt artes eximiae huius administrae comitesque virtutis. Ac primum quanta innocentia debent esse imperatores! quanta deinde in omnibus rebus temperantia! quanta fide, quanta facilitate, quanto ingenio, quanta humanitate! quae breviter qualia sint in Cn. Pompeio consideremus. Summa enim omnia sunt, Quirites, sed ea magis ex aliorumcontentione quamipsa per sese 37cognosci atque intellegi possunt. Quem enim imperatorem possumus ullo in numero putare, cuius in exercitu centuriatus veneant atque venierint? Quid hunc hominem magnum aut amplum de re publica cogitare, qui pecuniam ex aerario depromptam ad bellum administrandum aut propter cupiditatem provinciae magistratibus diviserit aut propter avaritiam Romae in quaestu reliquerit? Vestra admurmuratio

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On The Manilian Law

alone. Again, when the pirates of Crete sent envoys to him as far as Pamphylia to plead their cause, he did not rob them of the hope that he would accept their surrender but demanded hostages. And so this war, so great and so protracted, so far and so widely extended, a war which pressed so heavily upon all nations and peoples, was by Gnaeus Pompeius organized at the end of winter, started at the beginning of spring, and finished by the middle of summer.

XIII. Such is his superhuman and unbelievable36 genius as a commander. As for his other qualities of which I began to speak a little while since, how great and how numerous they are! For in a general of the highest and most perfect type we must not look for military genius alone. For there are many notable qualities which support and go with it. First, how great is the integrity needed by a general; and again, what self-control in every department; what trustworthiness, what condescension; what a brain and what a heart! Let us briefly review these qualities as they are found in Gnaeus Pompeius. For they are all to be found in him, gentlemen, and in the highest degree, though they may be recognized and appreciated better when contrasted with those of other men than when regarded simply by themselves. For what general can we hold in any sort of esteem37 when in his army the appointment of centurions is for sale and has been sold? How can we attribute a great and lofty conception of patriotism to the sort of man who has been induced, by his ambition to become a governor, to divide among the magistrates the money issued to him from the treasury for the conduct of a campaign or, by his avarice, to leave it on interest at

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DOI: 10.4159/DLCL.marcus_tullius_cicero-pro_lege_manilia.1927