Cicero, Pro Lege Manilia

LCL 198: 42-43

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tanta sunt in hoc uno, quanta in omnibus reliquis imperatoribus, quos aut vidimus aut audivimus, non 30fuerunt. Testis est Italia, quam ille ipse victor L. Sulla huius virtute et subsidio confessus est liberatam; testis est Sicilia, quam multis undique cinctam periculis non terrore belli, sed consilii celeritate explicavit; testis est Africa, quae magnis oppressa hostium copiis eorum ipsorum sanguine redundavit; testis est Gallia, per quam legionibus nostris iter in Hispaniam Gallorum internicione patefactum est; testis est Hispania, quae saepissime plurimos hostes ab hoc superatos prostratosque conspexit; testis est iterum et saepius Italia, quae cum servili bello taetro periculosoque premeretur, ab hoc auxilium absente expetivit, quod bellum exspectatione eius attenuatum atque imminutum est, adventu sublatum ac sepultum; 31testes nunc vero iam omnes sunt orae atque omnes exterae gentes ac nationes, denique maria omnia cum universa, tum in singulis oris omnes sinus atque portus. Quis enim toto mari locus per hos annos aut tam firmum habuit praesidium, ut tutus esset, aut tam fuit abditus, ut lateret? Quis navigavit, qui non se aut mortis aut servitutis periculo committeret, cum aut hieme aut referto praedonum mari navigaret? Hoc tantum bellum, tam turpe, tam vetus, tam late divisum atque dispersum

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On The Manilian Law

strategy—qualities which are possessed in greater measure by Pompeius alone than by all other generals whom we have seen or heard of. Italya is my witness,30 which, as the great conqueror, Lucius Sulla himself admitted, was set free by the able cooperation of Pompeius. Sicilyb is my witness, which, beset on every side with numerous perils, was released not by the terror of his arms but by the swiftness of his strategy. Africac is my witness, which, overwhelmed by great hosts of the enemy, was drenched with the blood of the same. Gauld is my witness, through which a way was opened into Spaind for our legions by the utter destruction of the Gauls. Spaine is my witness, which many a time beheld countless foes by him conquered and laid low. Italyf is my witness again and again, which, when in the throes of the shameful and perilous Slave war, sought aid from him though far away and saw that war reduced and brought low by the expectation of his coming, dead and buried on his arrival. Nay, every region is my31 witness and every foreign nation and people, and lastly every sea,g both in its whole expanse and in the separate creeks and harbours of its coasts. For what position on the whole seaboard during those years was either so strongly defended as to be secure or so well hidden as to escape notice? Who sailed the seas without exposing himself to the risk either of death or of slavery, sailing as he did either in the winter or when the sea was infested with pirates? Who ever supposed that a war of such dimensions, so inglorious and so longstanding, so widespread and

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DOI: 10.4159/DLCL.marcus_tullius_cicero-pro_lege_manilia.1927