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enim mentitur, tamen est adversarius lenior. Ad Arcesilan Carneademque veniamus.”

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V. Quae cum dixisset, sic rursus exorsus est: “Primum mihi videmini”—me autem [nomine]1 appellabat—“cum veteres physicos nominatis, facere idem quod seditiosi cives solent cum aliquos ex antiquis claros viros proferunt quos dicant fuisse populares ut eorum ipsi similes esse videantur. Repetunt enim a2 P. Valerio qui exactis regibus primo anno consul fuit, commemorant reliquos qui leges populares de provocationibus tulerint cum consules essent; tum ad hos notiores, C. Flaminium qui legem agrariam aliquot annis ante secundum Punicum bellum tribunus plebis tulerit invito senatu et postea bis consul factus sit, L. Cassium, Q. Pompeium; illi quidem etiam P. Africanum referre in eundem numerum solent. Duos vero sapientissimos et clarissimos fratres P. Crassum et P. Scaevolam aiunt Ti. Graccho auctores legum fuisse, alterum quidem (ut videmus) palam, alterum (ut suspicantur) obscurius. Addunt etiam C. Marium, et de hoc quidem nihil mentiuntur. Horum nominibus tot virorum atque tantorum expositis eorum se 14 institutum sequi dicunt. Similiter vos, cum perturbare ut illi rem publicam sic vos philosophiam bene iam constitutam velitis, Empedoclen, Anaxagoran, Democritum, Parmeniden, Xenophanem, Platonem

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Academica, II. (Lucullus)

not true, he is a milder adversary. Let us come to Arcesilas and Carneades.”

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V. When he had said this he started again as(1) The New Academy perverts history: the ancients were dogmatic, follows: “In the first place I feel that you gentlemen “—it was to me that he was actually speaking,—” when you cite the names of the old natural philosophers, are doing just what citizens raising a sedition usually do, when they quote some famous personages of antiquity as having been of the people’s party, so as to make themselves appear to resemble them. For they go back to Publius Valerius who was consul in the first year after the expulsion of509 b.c. the kings, and they quote all the other persons who when consuls carried popular legislation about processes of appeal; then they come to the better known cases of Gaius Flaminius, who when tribune of the plebs some years before the second Punic War232 b.c. carried an agrarian law against the will of the senate and afterwards twice became consul, and of Lucius Cassius and Quintus Pompeius; indeed these people have a way of including even Publius Africanus in the same list. But they say that the two very wise and distinguished brothers Publius Crassus and Publius Scaevola were supporters of the laws of Tiberius Gracchus, the former (as we read) openly, the latter133 b.c. (as they suspect) more covertly. They also add Gaius Marius, and about him at all events they say nothing that is untrue. After parading all this list of names of men of such distinction they declare that they themselves are following the principle set up 14 by them. Similarly your school, whenever you want to upset an already well-established system of philosophy just as they did a political system, quote Empedocles, Anaxagoras, Democritus, Parmenides,

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DOI: 10.4159/DLCL.marcus_tullius_cicero-academica.1933