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LIVY

LIBRI XXI PERIOCHA

Belli Punici secundi ortum90 narrat et Hannibalis, ducis Poenorum, contra foedus per Hiberum flumen transitum. a quo Saguntum, sociorum91 populi Romani civitas obsessa, octavo mense capta est. de quibus iniuriis missi legati ad Carthaginieuses, qui quererentur. cum satis facere nollent, bellum his indictum est. Hannibal superato Pyrenaeo saltu per Gallias, fusis Volcis,92 qui obsistere conati erant ei, ad Alpes venit et laborioso per eas transitu, cum montanos quoque Gallos obvios aliquot proeliis reppulisset, descendit in Italiam et ad Ticinum flumen Romanos equestri proelio fudit. in quo vulneratum P. Cornelium Scipionem protexit filius, qui Africani postea nomen accepit. iterumque exercitu Romano ad flumen Trebiam fuso Hannibal Appenninum quoque permagna vexatione militum propter vim tempestatium transiit. Cn. Cornelius Scipio in Hispania contra Poenos prospere pugnavit duce hostium Magone capto.

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BOOK XXI

SUMMARY OF BOOK XXI

This book describes the beginning of the Second Punic War, and how Hannibal, the general of the Phoenicians, crossed the river Ebro in violation of the treaty. Besieging Saguntum, a city belonging to allies of the Roman People, he captured it in the eighth month. These violations led to the dispatch of ambassadors to the Carthaginians to complain. On their refusing satisfaction, war was declared against Carthage. Hannibal, after surmounting the passes of the Pyrenees, traversed Gaul—having routed the Volcae, who had attempted to stop him—and arrived at the Alps. After a troublesome passage of these mountains, in the course of which he also defeated in several battles the Gallic mountain people when they blocked his way, he descended into Italy and routed the Romans in a cavalry battle near the river Ticinus. In this battle Publius Cornelius Scipio was wounded and was saved by his son, who later received the name of Africanus. Near the river Trebia a Roman army was again routed. After this Hannibal crossed the Apennines, with great suffering for his soldiers because of violent storms. In Spain Gnaeus Cornelius Scipio fought successfully against the Phoenicians, capturing the enemy’s general, Mago.259

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DOI: 10.4159/DLCL.livy-history_rome_21.2019