ἀπίδοι, γνώσεται τὴν τοσήνδε ἡγεμονίαν αὐτοὺς 72ἀρετῆς κτῆμα ἔχοντας, οὐ δῶρον τύχης. οὐ γὰρ αὐτοῖς ἀρχὴ τῶν ὅπλων [ὁ] πόλεμος, οὐδ᾿ ἐπὶ μόνας τὰς χρείας τὼ χεῖρε κινοῦσιν ἐν εἰρήνῃ προηργηκότες, ἀλλ᾿ ὥσπερ συμπεφυκότες τοῖς ὅπλοις οὐδέποτε τῆς ἀσκήσεως λαμβάνουσιν ἐκεχειρίαν 73οὐδὲ ἀναμένουσιν τοὺς καιρούς. αἱ μελέται δ᾿ αὐτοῖς οὐδὲν τῆς κατὰ ἀλήθειαν εὐτονίας ἀποδέουσιν, ἀλλ᾿ ἕκαστος ὁσημέραι στρατιώτης πάσῃ προθυμίᾳ καθάπερ ἐν πολέμῳ γυμνάζεται. 74διὸ κουφότατα τὰς μάχας διαφέρουσιν· οὔτε γὰρ ἀταξία διασκίδνησιν αὐτοὺς ἀπὸ τῆς ἐν ἔθει συντάξεως, οὔτε δέος ἐξίστησιν, οὔτε δαπανᾷ πόνος, ἕπεται δὲ τὸ κρατεῖν ἀεὶ κατὰ τῶν οὐχ ὁμοίων 75βέβαιον. καὶ οὐκ ἂν ἁμάρτοι τις εἰπὼν τὰς μὲν μελέτας αὐτῶν χωρὶς αἵματος παρατάξεις, τὰς 76παρατάξεις δὲ μεθ᾿ αἵματος μελέτας. οὐδὲ γὰρ ἐξ ἐπιδρομῆς εὐάλωτοι πολεμίοις· ὅπῃ δ᾿ ἂν ἐμβάλωσιν εἰς ἐχθρῶν γῆν, οὐ πρὶν ἅπτονται 77μάχης ἢ τειχίσαι στρατόπεδον. τὸ δὲ οὐκ εἰκαῖον οὐδὲ ἀνώμαλον ἐγείρουσιν, οὐδὲ πάντες ἢ ἀτάκτως διαλαβόντες, ἀλλ᾿ εἰ μὲν ἀνώμαλος ὢν τύχοι χῶρος, ἐξομαλίζεται· διαμετρεῖται δὲ παρεμβολὴ 78τετράγωνος αὐτοῖς. καὶ τεκτόνων πλῆθος ἕπεται τῶν τε πρὸς τὴν δόμησιν ἐργαλείων.1
79(2) Καὶ τὸ μὲν ἔνδον εἰς σκηνὰς διαλαμβάνουσιν,
as a whole, it will be seen that this vast empire of theirs has come to them as the prize of valour, and not as a gift of fortune.
For their nation does not wait for the outbreak of Their training in peace time. war to give men their first lesson in arms; they do not sit with folded hands in peace time only to put them in motion in the hour of need. On the contrary, as though they had been born with weapons in hand, they never have a truce from training, never wait for emergencies to arise. Moreover, their peace manœuvres are no less strenuous than veritable warfare; each soldier daily throws all his energy into his drill, as though he were in action. Hence that perfect ease with which they sustain the shock of battle: no confusion breaks their customary formation, no panic paralyses, no fatigue exhausts them; and as their opponents cannot match these qualities, victory is the invariable and certain consequence. Indeed, it would not be wrong to describe their manœuvres as bloodless combats and their combats as sanguinary manœuvres.
The Romans never lay themselves open to a surprise The camp: its construction. attack; for, whatever hostile territory they may invade, they engage in no battle until they have fortified their camp. This camp is not erected at random or unevenly; they do not all work at once or in disorderly parties; if the ground is uneven, it is first levelled;a a site for the camp is then measured out in the form of a square. For this purpose the army is accompanied by a multitude of workmen and of tools for building.
(2) The interior of the camp is divided into rows