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Josephus

τρίτον ἀδηρίτως ἐπὶ τῆς ὑπὸ Ῥωμαίοις οἰκουμένης ἔχουσα τόπον, ἔνθα μετὰ πάσης τῆς ἰδίας ἰσχύος ἐκδεχόμενον αὐτοῦ τὴν ἄφιξιν καὶ Ἀγρίππαν τὸν βασιλέα κατειλήφει, ἐπὶ Πτολεμαΐδος 30ἠπείγετο. καὶ κατὰ ταύτην ὑπαντῶσιν αὐτῷ τὴν πόλιν οἱ τῆς Γαλιλαίας Σέπφωριν νεμόμενοι, 31μόνοι τῶν τῇδε εἰρηνικὰ φρονοῦντες· οἵ καὶ τῆς ἑαυτῶν σωτηρίας καὶ τῆς Ῥωμαίων ἰσχύος οὐκ ἀπρονόητοι πρὶν ἀφικέσθαι Οὐεσπασιανὸν Καισεννίῳ Γάλλῳ πίστεις τε ἔδοσαν καὶ δεξιὰς ἔλαβον 32καὶ παρεδέξαντο φρουράν. τότε γε μὴν φιλοφρόνως ἐκδεξάμενοι τὸν ἡγεμόνα προθύμως σφᾶς αὐτοὺς ὑπέσχοντο κατὰ τῶν ὁμοφύλων συμμάχους· 33οἷς ὁ στρατηγὸς ἀξιώσασι τέως πρὸς ἀσφάλειαν ἱππεῖς τε καὶ πεζοὺς παραδίδωσιν ὅσους ἀνθέξειν ταῖς καταδρομαῖς, εἴ τι Ἰουδαῖοι 34παρακινοῖεν, ὑπελάμβανεν· καὶ γὰρ οὐ μικρὸν ἐδόκει τὸ κινδύνευμα πρὸς τὸν μέλλοντα πόλεμον ἀφαιρεθῆναι τὴν Σέπφωριν, μεγίστην μὲν οὖσαν τῆς Γαλιλαὶας πόλιν, ἐρυμνοτάτῳ δ᾿ ἐπιτετειχισμένην χωρίῳ καὶ φρουρὰν ὅλου τοῦ ἔθνους ἐσομένην.

35(iii. 1) Δύο δ᾿ οὔσας τὰς Γαλιλαίας, τήν τε ἄνω καὶ τὴν κάτω προσαγορευομένην, περιίσχει μὲν ἡ Φοινίκη τε καὶ Συρία, διορίζει δ᾿ ἀπὸ μὲν δύσεως ἡλίου Πτολεμαῒς τοῖς τῆς χώρας τέρμασι καὶ Κάρμηλος, τὸ πάλαι μὲν Γαλιλαίων, νῦν δὲ 36Τυρίων ὄρος· ᾧ προσίσχει Γάβα,1 πόλις ἱππέων, οὕτω προσαγορευομένη διὰ τὸ τοὺς ὑφ᾿ Ἡρώδου

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Jewish War, III

thirda among the cities of the Roman world. Here a.d. 67 (spring). he had found, among others, king Agrippa awaiting his arrival with all his own troops. From Antioch Vespasian pushed on to Ptolemais. At this city he was met by the inhabitants of Sepphoris in Galilee, the Submission of Sepphoris. only people of that province who displayed pacific sentiments. For, with an eye to their own security and a sense of the power of Rome, they had already, before the coming of Vespasian, given pledges to Caesennius Gallus, received his assurance of protection, and admitted a Roman garrison;b now they offered a cordial welcome to the commander-in-chief, and promised him their active support against their countrymen. At their request, the general provisionally assigned them for their protection as large a force of cavalry and infantry as he considered sufficient to repel invasions in the event of the Jews causing trouble; indeed, it appeared to him that the loss of Sepphoris would be a hazard gravely affecting the impending campaign, as it was the largest city of Galilee, a fortress in an exceptionally strong position in the enemy’s territory, and adapted to keep guard over the entire province.

(iii. 1) Galilee, with its two divisions known as Description of Galilee. Upper and Lower Galilee, is enveloped by Phoenicia and Syria. Its western frontiers are the outlying territory of Ptolemais and Carmel, a mountain once belonging to Galilee, and now to Tyre; adjacent to Carmel is Gaba, the “city of cavalry,” so called from the cavalry who, on their discharge by King Herod

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DOI: 10.4159/DLCL.josephus-jewish_war.1927