θεοῦ τὴν προσηγορίαν ἐπιτετμημένος ἐστί. καὶ τοιοῦτος μὲν ὁ τοῦ ἀρχιερέως κόσμος ἐστί.
179(7) Θαυμάσειε δ᾿ ἄν τις τῶν ἀνθρώπων τὴν πρὸς ἡμᾶς ἀπέχθειαν, ἣν ὡς ἐκφαυλιζόντων ἡμῶν τὸ θεῖον ὅπερ αὐτοὶ σέβειν προῄρηνται διατετελέκασιν 180ἐσχηκότες. εἰ γάρ τις τῆς σκηνῆς κατανοήσειε τὴν πῆξιν καὶ τοῦ ἱερέως ἴδοι τὴν στολὴν τά τε σκεύη, οἷς περὶ τὴν ἱερουργίαν χρώμεθα, τόν τε νομοθέτην εὑρήσει θεῖον ἄνδρα καὶ ματαίως ἡμᾶς ὑπὸ τῶν ἄλλων τὰς βλασφημίας ἀκούοντας· ἕκαστα γὰρ τούτων εἰς ἀπομίμησιν καὶ διατύπωσιν τῶν ὅλων, εἴ τις ἀφθόνως ἐθέλοι καὶ μετὰ συνέσεως σκοπεῖν, εὑρήσει γεγονότα. 181τήν τε γὰρ σκηνὴν τριάκοντα πηχῶν οὖσαν νείμας εἰς τρία καὶ δύο μέρη πᾶσιν ἀνεὶς τοῖς ἱερεῦσιν ὥσπερ βέβηλόν τινα καὶ κοινὸν τόπον, τὴν γῆν καὶ τὴν θάλασσαν ἀποσημαίνει· καὶ γὰρ ταῦτα πᾶσίν ἐστιν ἐπίβατα· τὴν δὲ τρίτην μοῖραν μόνῳ περιέγραψε τῷ θεῷ διὰ τὸ καὶ τὸν οὐρανὸν ἀνεπίβατον 182εἶναι ἀνθρώποις. ἐπί τε τῇ τραπέζῃ τοὺς δώδεκα θεὶς1 ἄρτους ἀποσημαίνει τὸν ἐνιαυτὸν εἰς τοσούτους μῆνας διῃρημένον. τὴν δὲ λυχνίαν ἐξ ἑβδομήκοντα μορίων ποιήσας συγκειμένην τὰς τῶν
characters the name of God.a Such is the apparel of the high-priest.
(7) But one may well be astonished at the hatred Symbolism of the tabernacle and the vestments. which men have for us and which they have so persistently maintained, from an idea that we slight the divinity whom they themselves profess to venerate. For if one reflects on the construction of the tabernacle and looks at the vestments of the priest and the vessels which we use for the sacred ministry, he will discover that our lawgiver was a man of God and that these blasphemous charges brought against us by the rest of men are idle. In fact, every one of these objects is intended to recall and represent the universe, as he will find if he will but consent to examine them without prejudice and with understanding.b Thus, to take the tabernacle, thirty cubits long, by dividing this into three parts and giving up two of them to the priests, as a place approachable and open to all, Moses signifies the earth and the sea, since these too are accessible to all; but the third portion he reserved for God alone, because heaven also is inaccessible to men. Again, by placing upon the table the twelve loaves, he signifies that the year is divided into as many months. By making the candelabrum to consist of seventy portions,c he
- aThe tetragrammaton yhvh (Anglice ‘Jehovah’): so B.J. v. 235 (note) and Aristeas § 98, rather than as in Exodus “Holy (or “Holiness”) to yhvh”
- bJosephus has already touched on this allegorical interpretation above (§ 123 μίμησιν τὴς τῶν ὅλων φύσεως) and in his earlier work (B.J. v. 212 f. εἰκόνα τῶν ὅλων). Philo gives a similar explanation, De vita Mos. ii. 6 (88) and 12 (117 ff.), which indeed appears to have been fairly widespread; Weill quotes parallels from the Midrashim and even from the Samaritan liturgy.
- c§ 145. But the component portions enumerated in Ex. xxv. 33 ff. seem to amount to 69 only (see Encycl. Bibl. i. 645 n. 3).