I. Ὀστέων φύσις· δακτύλων μὲν ἁπλᾶ καὶ ὀστέα καὶ ἄρθρα, χειρὸς δὲ καὶ ποδὸς πολλά, ἄλλα ἀλλοίως συνηρθρωμένα· μέγιστα δὲ τά ἀνωτάτω. πτέρνης δὲ ἕν, οἷον ἔξω φαίνεται, πρὸς δὲ αὐτὴν οἱ ὀπίσθιοι τένοντες τείνουσιν. κνήμης δὲ δύο, ἄνωθεν καὶ κάτωθεν συνεχόμενα, κατὰ μέσον δὲ διέχοντα σμικρόν· τὸ ἔξωθεν, κατὰ τὸν σμικρὸν δάκτυλον λεπτότερον βραχεῖ, πλεῖστον δὲ ταύτῃ διεχούσῃ καὶ σμικροτέρῃ ῥοπῇ κατὰ 10γόνυ, καὶ ὁ τένων ἐξ αὐτοῦ πέφυκεν, ὁ παρὰ τὴν ἰγνύην ἔξω. ἔχουσι δὲ κάτωθεν κοινὴν ἐπίφυσιν πρὸς ἣν ὁ ποὺς κινεῖται· ἄλλην δὲ ἄνωθεν ἔχουσιν ἐπίφυσιν, ἐν ᾗ τὸ τοῦ μηροῦ ἄρθρον κινεῖται, ἁπλόον καὶ εὐσταλὲς ὡς ἐπὶ μήκει· εἶδος κονδυλῶδες, ἔχον ἐπιμυλίδα· αὐτὸς δὲ ἔγκυρτος ἔξω καὶ ἔμπροσθεν· ἡ δὲ κεφαλὴ ἐπίφυσίς ἐστι στρογγύλη, ἐξ ἧς τὸ νεῦρον τὸ ἐν τῇ κοτύλῃ τοῦ ἰσχίου πέφυκεν· ὑποπλάγιον δὲ καὶ τοῦτο προσήρτηται, ἧσσον δὲ βραχίονος. 20τὸ δὲ ἰσχίον προσίσχεται πρὸς τῷ μεγάλῳ σπονδύλῳ τῷ παρὰ τὸ ἱερὸν ὀστέον χονδρονευρώδει δεσμῷ.
Instruments of Reduction
I. Nature of bones. In the fingers and toes, both bones and joints are simple; but in hand and foot they are diverse and diversely articulated, the uppermost being largest. The heel has a single bone which appears as a projection, and the hind tendons pull upon it. There are two leg-bones joined together above and below, but slightly separated in the middle. The outer one, towards the little toe, is rather more slender, most so in the separated part, and in the smaller inclination at the knee;1 and the tendon on the outer side of the ham has its origin from it. They have below a common epiphysis on which the foot moves; and above they have another epiphysis, in which the articular end of the thigh-bone moves. This is simple and compact, considering the length of the bone; it is knuckle-shaped, and has a knee-cap. The bone itself is curved outwards and forwards; its head is a spherical epiphysis, from which the ligament arises which has its attachment in the cavity2 of the hip this(tendon)3 is inserted rather obliquely, but less so than that of the arm.4 The hip-bone is attached to the great vertebra5 next the sacrum by a fibrocartilaginous ligament.