Hippocrates of Cos, Airs Waters Places

LCL 147: 70-71

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ΠΕΡΙ ΑΕΡΩΝ ΥΔΑΤΩΝ ΤΟΠΩΝ

ΠΕΡΙ ΑΕΡΩΝ ΥΔΑΤΩΝ ΤΟΠΩΝ

᾿Ιητρικὴν ὅστις βούλεται ὀρθῶς ζητεῖν, τάδε χρὴ ποιεῖν· πρῶτον μὲν ἐνθυμεῖσθαι τὰς ὥρας τοῦ ἔτεος, ὅ τι δύναται ἀπεργάζεσθαι ἑκάστη· οὐ γὰρ ἐοίκασιν ἀλλήλοισιν οὐδέν, ἀλλὰ πολὺ διαφέρουσιν αὐταί τε ἐφ᾿ ἑωυτέων καὶ ἐν τῇσι μεταβολῇσιν· ἔπειτα δὲ τὰ πνεύματα τὰ θερμά τε καὶ τὰ ψυχρά, μάλιστα μὲν τὰ κοινὰ πᾶσιν ἀνθρώποισιν, ἔπειτα δὲ καὶ τὰ ἐν ἑκάστῃ χώρῃ ἐπιχώρια ἐόντα. δεῖ δὲ καὶ τῶν ὑδάτων ἐνθυμεῖσθαι 10τὰς δυνάμιας· ὥσπερ γὰρ ἐν τῷ στόματι διαφέρουσι καὶ ἐν τῷ σταθμῷ, οὕτω καὶ ἡ δύναμις διαφέρει πολὺ ἑκάστου. ὥστε ἐς πόλιν ἐπειδὰν ἀφίκηταί τις, ἧς ἄπειρός ἐστι, διαφροντίσαι χρὴ τὴν θέσιν αὐτῆς, ὅκως κεῖται καὶ πρὸς τὰ πνεύματα καὶ πρὸς τὰς ἀνατολὰς τοῦ ἡλίου. οὐ γὰρ τωὐτὸ δύναται ἥτις πρὸς βορέην κεῖται καὶ ἥτις πρὸς νότον οὐδ᾿ ἥτις πρὸς ἥλιον ἀνίσχοντα οὐδ᾿ ἥτις πρὸς δύνοντα. ταῦτα δὲ χρὴ1 ἐνθυμεῖσθαι ὡς κάλλιστα καὶ τῶν ὑδάτων πέρι ὡς ἔχουσι, 20καὶ πότερον ἑλώδεσι χρέονται καὶ μαλθακοῖσιν ἢ σκληροῖσί τε καὶ ἐκ μετεώρων καὶ πετρωδέων εἴτε ἁλυκοῖσι καὶ ἀτεράμνοισιν· καὶ τὴν γῆν, πότερον ψιλή τε καὶ ἄνυδρος ἢ δασεῖα καὶ ἔφυδρος καὶ εἴτε ἔγκοιλός ἐστι καὶ πνιγηρὴ εἴτε μετέωρος καὶ ψυχρή· καὶ τὴν δίαιταν τῶν ἀνθρώπων, ὁκοίῃ ἥδονται, πότερον φιλοπόται καὶ

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Airs Waters Places

Airs Waters Places

Whoever wishes to pursue properly the science of medicine must proceed thus. First he ought to consider what effects each season of the year can produce; for the seasons are not at all alike, but differ widely both in themselves and at their changes. The next point is the hot winds and the cold, especially those that are universal, but also those that are peculiar to each particular region. He must also consider the properties of the waters; for as these differ in taste and in weight, so the property of each is far different from that of any other. Therefore, on arrival at a town with which he is unfamiliar, a physician should examine its position with respect to the winds and to the risings of the sun. For a northern, a southern, an eastern, and a western aspect has each its own individual property. He must consider with the greatest care both these things and how the natives are off for water, whether they use marshy, soft waters, or such as are hard and come from rocky heights, or brackish and harsh. The soil too, whether bare and dry or wooded and watered, hollow and hot or high and cold. The mode of life also of the inhabitants that is pleasing to them, whether they

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DOI: 10.4159/DLCL.hippocrates_cos-airs_waters_places.1923