Hippocrates of Cos, Affections

LCL 472: 6-7

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VI 208 Littré1. Ἄνδρα χρή, ὅστις ἐστὶ συνετός, λογισάμενον ὅτι τοῖσιν ἀνθρώποισι πλείστου ἄξιόν ἐστιν ἡ ὑγιείη, ἐπίστασθαι ἀπὸ τῆς ἑωυτοῦ γνώμης ἐν τῇσι νούσοισιν ὠφελέεσθαι·1 ἐπίστασθαι δὲ τὰ ὑπὸ τῶν ἰητρῶν καὶ λεγόμενα καὶ προσφερόμενα πρὸς τὸ σῶμα ἑαυτοῦ καὶ διαγινώσκειν· ἐπίστασθαι δὲ τούτων ἕκαστα ἐς ὅσον εἰκὸς ἰδιώτην.

Ταῦτ᾿ οὖν ἐπίσταιτο ἄν τις μάλιστα εἰδὼς καὶ ἐπιτηδεύων τάδε· νοσήματα τοῖσιν ἀνθρώποις ἅπαντα γίνεται ὑπὸ χολῆς καὶ φλέγματος. ἡ δὲ χολὴ καὶ τὸ φλέγμα τὰς νούσους παρέχει ὅταν ἐν τῷ σώματι ὑπερυγραίνηται ἢ ὑπερξηραίνηται ἢ ὑπερθερμαίνηται ἢ ὑπερψύχηται· πάσχει δὲ ταῦτα τὸ φλέγμα καὶ ἡ χολὴ καὶ ἀπὸ σίτων καὶ ποτῶν, καὶ ἀπὸ πόνων καὶ τρωμάτων, καὶ ἀπὸ ὀσμῆς καὶ ἀκοῆς καὶ ὄψιος καὶ λαγνείης, καὶ ἀπὸ τοῦ θερμοῦ τε καὶ ψυχροῦ· πάσχει δέ, ὅταν τούτων ἕκαστα τῶν εἰρημένων ἢ μὴ ἐν τῷ δέοντι προσφέρηται τῷ σώματι, ἢ μὴ τὰ εἰωθότα, ἢ πλείω τε καὶ ἰσχυρότερα, ἢ ἐλάσσω τε καὶ ἀσθενέστερα.




1. Any man who is intelligent must, on considering that health is of the utmost value to human beings, have the personal understanding necessary to help himself in diseases, and be able to understand and to judge what physicians say and what they administer to his body, being versed in each of these matters to a degree reasonable for a layman.

Now a person would best be able to understand such things by knowing and applying the following: all human diseases arise from bile and phlegm; the bile and phlegm produce diseases when, inside the body, one of them becomes too moist, too dry, too hot, or too cold; they become this way from foods and drinks, from exertions and wounds, from smell, sound, sight, and venery, and from heat and cold; this happens when any of the things mentioned are applied to the body at the wrong time, against custom, in too great amount and too strong, or in insufficient amount and too weak.

DOI: 10.4159/DLCL.hippocrates_cos-affections.1988