Galen, On Temperaments

LCL 546: 18-19

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Ὅσοι δὲ τέτταρας εἶναι νομίζουσι, διχῶς τούτοις ἀντιλέγουσιν, ἔνιοι μὲν εὐθὺς τὸ πρῶτον ἀξίωμα μὴ συγχωροῦντες, ὡς ἐξικμάζεσθαι τὴν ὑγρότητα | 512Kπρὸς τοῦ θερμοῦ κρατοῦντος ἀναγκαῖόν ἐστιν, ἔνιοι δὲ τοῦτο μὲν συγχωροῦντες, ἀμφισβητοῦντες δ’ ἑτέρως. οἱ μὲν δὴ πρῶτοι τοῦ θερμοῦ μὲν ἔργον εἶναί φασι τὸ θερμαίνειν ὥσπερ τοῦ ψυχροῦ τὸ ψύχειν, τοῦ ξηροῦ δ’ αὖ τὸ ξηραίνειν ὥσπερ τοῦ ὑγροῦ τὸ ὑγραίνειν. καὶ διὰ τοῦθ’ ὅσα μὲν σώματα θερμὰ τὴν φύσιν ἐστὶν ἅμα καὶ ξηρὰ καθάπερ τὸ πῦρ, ᾗ μὲν θερμά, θερμαίνειν, ᾗ δὲ ξηρά, ξηραίνειν. ὅσα δ’ ὑγρὰ καὶ θερμὰ καθάπερ ὕδωρ θερμόν, ὑγραίνειν ταῦτα καὶ θερμαίνειν [πέφυκεν ἀεὶ],3 ἓν ἑκατέρας κἀνταῦθα ποιότητος ἔργον ἐχούσης ἀχώριστον. οὔκουν συγχωροῦσιν, εἴ τι θερμόν4 ἐστιν, εὐθὺς τοῦτο καὶ ξηραίνειν, ἀλλ’ εἰ μὲν ὑγρότης προσείη τῇ θερμότητι, θερμαίνειν ἅμα καὶ ὑγραίνειν ὥσπερ τὰ λουτρὰ τῶν γλυκέων ὑδάτων. εἰ δ’ ὥσπερ θερμὸν οὕτω καὶ ξηρὸν εἴη καθάπερ τὸ πῦρ, οὐ θερμαίνειν μόνον, ἀλλὰ καὶ ξηραίνειν εὐθύς, οὐκ ἐκ τῆς θερμότητος τοῦτο λαβόν, ἀλλ’ ἐκ τῆς συνούσης αὐτῷ ξηρότητος. ὑπομιμνήσκουσι δ’ ἐνταῦθα τῶν ἐν ἡλίῳ θερινῷ διατριψάντων ἐπὶ πλέον, εἶθ’, ὡς εἰκός, | 513Kαὐανθέντων ὅλον τε τὸ σῶμα καὶ ξηρὸν καὶ αὐχμηρὸν ἐχόντων καὶ διψώντων οὐκ ἀνεκτῶς. ἴασιν γὰρ αὐτοῖς εἶναί φασιν ἑτοίμην τε καὶ ῥᾴστην, οὐκ εἰ πίοιεν μόνον, ἀλλ’ εἰ καὶ λούσαιντο θερμοῖς ὕδασι



Those who think there are four [krasias] gainsay these men in two ways. Some right at the start do not accept the first assumption, that | 512Kthe wetness is necessarily dried out by the predominant hotness. Some, however, do accept this, but disagree on other grounds. The first say an action of the hot is to heat, just as that of the cold is to cool, the dry in turn to dry, just as the wet to wet. And because of this, those bodies that are hot in nature and dry at the same time, like fire, heat by virtue of their hotness and dry by virtue of their dryness. Those bodies that are wet and hot, like hot water, naturally always wet and heat, since here too each quality has one inseparable action. They do not, therefore, agree that, if something is hot, it immediately also dries, but if wetness is present with the hotness, it heats and wets at the same time, like baths of sweet, fresh waters4 do. If, however, just as it is hot, so too it is also dry, like fire, not only does it heat but also immediately dries, and this is not taken from the hotness but from the dryness accompanying it. Here they call to mind those who, when they spend an excessive amount of time in the summer sun, are, as is to be expected, | 513Kdried out in the whole body and become dry, parched, and intolerably thirsty. They say the cure for them is ready to hand and very easy, not only if they drink but also if they bathe in

DOI: 10.4159/DLCL.galen-temperaments.2020