Galen, On Temperaments

LCL 546: 106-107

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δ’ ἄλλα τὰ καθ’ ἕκαστον γένος εὔκρατα ταῖς οἰκείαις τῶν σωμάτων ἐνεργείαις τε καὶ χρείαις κρίνεται καὶ διὰ τοῦτο ταὐτὸν σῶμα ζῴου τινὸς ἢ φυτοῦ μέσον μὲν εἶναι δύναται τῶν ὁμογενῶν ἁπάντων, τουτέστιν εὔκρατόν τε καὶ σύμμετρον ἐν ἐκείνῳ τῷ γένει, δύσκρατον δ’ ἑτέρῳ τινὶ παραβαλλόμενον ἢ φυτῶν ἢ ζῴων ἢ ἀψύχων γένει. | 574Kτὸ μὲν γὰρ τοῦ ζῶντος σῶμα τῷ τοῦ νεκροῦ παραβαλλόμενον ὑγρότερόν ἐστι καὶ θερμότερον, οἷον, εἰ τύχοι, λέων ζῶν τεθνεῶτος λέοντος ἢ αὐτὸς ἑαυτοῦ τις ἢ ἕτερος ἑτέρου θερμότερός τ’ ἐστι καὶ ὑγρότερος, καὶ διὰ τοῦτ’ εἴρηται πρὸς τῶν παλαιῶν ὑγρόν τ’ εἶναι καὶ θερμὸν τὸ ζῷον, οὐχ ὡς ἢ τῆς ὑγρότητος ἐν αὐτῷ πλεονεκτούσης ἁπλῶς ἢ τῆς θερμότητος· οὕτω μὲν γὰρ εὑρεθήσεται πάμπολλα ζῷα ξηρὰ καὶ ψυχρά, καθάπερ ἐμπίδες τε καὶ κώνωπες καὶ μυῖαι καὶ μέλιτται καὶ μύρμηκες· ἀλλ’ ὡς τοῖς τεθνεῶσι παραβαλλόμενα. καὶ γὰρ καὶ μέλιττα ζῶσα τεθνεώσης μελίττης ὑγροτέρα τ’ ἐστὶ καὶ θερμοτέρα καὶ μύρμηξ μύρμηκος, ἀνθρώπῳ μέντοι παραβαλλόμενα καὶ ἵππῳ καὶ βοὶ καὶ τοῖς ἄλλοις ζῴοις τοῖς ἐναίμοις ἅπαντα τὰ τοιαῦτα ψυχρὰ καὶ ξηρὰ τὴν κρᾶσίν ἐστι. καὶ μὲν δὴ κἂν εἰ πρὸς τὴν ὅλην οὐσίαν ἀποβλέπων ἐξετάζοις, οὐδ’ οὕτως ἐκπέπτωκε τοῦ ξηρά τ’ εἶναι καὶ ψυχρά. ὥσπερ γὰρ καθ’ ἕκαστον γένος, ὅταν ἐξίστηταί τι τῆς μεσότητος, | 575Kἀπὸ τοῦ πλεονεκτοῦντος ὀνομάζεται, κατὰ τὸν αὐτὸν τρόπον ἐπὶ τῆς συμπάσης οὐσίας, ὅταν ὑπερβάλλῃ τι τὸ μέσον,



The other eukrasias—those in relation to each class—are judged by the characteristic functions and uses of the bodies. And because of this, the same body, whether of an animal or a plant, is able to be the median of all things of the same class—that is to say, eukratic and well-balanced in that class, although it may be dyskratic when compared to some other class of either plants, or animals, or inanimate things. | 574KFor the body of the living [organism], when compared to that of the dead, is wetter and hotter. For example, as may happen, a living lion is hotter and wetter than a dead lion whether you compare the same lion with itself or one lion with another. And because of this the living animal was said by the ancients to be wet and hot, not because the wetness prevails in it absolutely, or the hotness, for in this way very many animals will be discovered to be dry and cold, like gnats, mosquitoes, flies, bees, and ants, but as compared to those that are dead. For surely a living bee is wetter and hotter than a dead bee, and a living ant than a dead ant, although when compared to a human, a horse, and an ox, and to the other sanguineous animals, all such (creatures) are cold and dry in krasis. And further certainly, even if you examine them, looking at the whole substance, they do not in this way cease to be dry and cold. For just as, in relation to each class, whenever something departs from the median position, | 575Kit is named from what predominates; in the same manner, in the case of the whole substance, whenever

DOI: 10.4159/DLCL.galen-temperaments.2020