Galen, On Temperaments

LCL 546: 104-105

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1. 572KὍτι μὲν δὴ τῶν πολλαχῶς λεγομένων ἐστὶν ὑγρόν τε σῶμα καὶ ξηρὸν καὶ ψυχρὸν καὶ θερμόν, ἐν τῷ πρὸ τούτου λόγῳ διῄρηται. δέδεικται δὲ καί, ὡς ἐννέα διαφοραὶ τῶν κράσεών εἰσι, μία μὲν ἡ σύμμετρός τε καὶ εὔκρατος, αἱ λοιπαὶ δὲ πᾶσαι δύσκρατοι, τέτταρες μὲν ἁπλαῖ, μιᾶς ἐν ἑκάστῃ πλεονεκτούσης ποιότητος ἤτοι θερμότητος ἢ ψυχρότητος ἢ ξηρότητος ἢ ὑγρότητος, ἕτεραι δὲ τέτταρες, ἐπειδὰν ἐξ ἑκατέρας ἀντιθέσεως ἡ ἑτέρα κρατήσῃ δύναμις. λέγω δ’ ἀντιθέσεις δύο, μίαν μὲν τὴν κατὰ τὸ θερμόν τε καὶ ψυχρόν, | 573Kἑτέραν δὲ τὴν κατὰ τὸ ξηρόν τε καὶ ὑγρόν.

Ἐφεξῆς δὲ τούτων ἐπὶ τὰ γνωρίσματα μεταβάντες ὑπὲρ τῆς εὐκράτου φύσεως ἐσκοπούμεθα, διότι πρώτη πασῶν ἥδε καὶ ἀρετῇ καὶ δυνάμει καὶ τάξει νοήσεώς ἐστιν. ἐπεὶ δ’ εὔκρατον ἄλλο μὲν ἁπλῶς εὑρίσκεται λεγόμενον ἐν πάσῃ τῇ τῶν ὄντων φύσει, καθ’ ἕκαστον δὲ γένος ἄλλο, περὶ πρώτου δεῖν ἐδόκει σκοπεῖσθαι τοῦ κοινῇ κατὰ πάσης φύσεως ἐξεταζομένου. κανὼν δ’ ἦν αὐτοῦ καὶ κρίσις ἡ τῶν στοιχείων ἰσομοιρία, δι’ ἣν καὶ τὸ τῶν ἐσχάτων ἁπάντων ἀκριβῶς μέσον ἀποτελεσθὲν εὔκρατόν τε καὶ σύμμετρον ὀνομάζεται. τὰ




1. 572KIt has surely been determined in the discussion prior to this, that a wet body, and a dry, cold and hot one are spoken of in many ways. It has also been shown that there are nine differentiae of the krasias; one which is in due proportion and eukratic, while the remainder are all dyskratic. Four are simple dyskrasias: one in each case when the prevailing quality is either hotness, coldness, dryness, or wetness. The other four occur when one or other power from each antithesis prevails—I speak of two antitheses, one is in relation to hot and cold, | 573Kwhile the other is in relation to dry and wet.

Next after these, having moved on to the signs, we gave consideration to the eukratic nature, since it is the first of all in excellence and potency, when considered in order. Since it was found that eukratic is in one way spoken of absolutely in every nature of existing things, and in another way in relation to each class, it seemed there was a need to consider the first examined in common in relation to every nature. A standard of this and a means of judgment was the equal distribution of the elements, as a result of which it was made the precise median of all the extremes and was called eukratic and well-balanced (moderate).

DOI: 10.4159/DLCL.galen-temperaments.2020