and of Aristotle, and then more fully the Stoic position, which includes the role of pneuma.

5. Galen states his adherence to the four elements/four qualities (continuum) theory of matter as opposed to the particle/void theory (atomism, corpuscularism). He affirms his position that the soul is a corporeal substance, as is the rest of the body, and has a krasis subject to the same changes like any other part.

6. This is a short section largely consisting of quotations from Plato’s Timaeus to show that he recognized the adverse effects that kakochymia can have on the functioning of the soul.

7. A long section comprising mainly quotations from two of Aristotle’s works, Parts of Animals and History of Animals, interspersed with comments by Galen. The Aristotelian passages are taken as supporting two suppositions: (a) the capacities of the soul at birth follow the krasis of the maternal blood; (b) The capacities of the soul follow the krasis (nature) generally of the body. The pseudo-Aristotelian works Physiognomica and Problems are also referenced.

8. This section comprises a series of quotations from the Hippocratic works, Airs, Waters, Places and Epidemics II to support the view that Hippocrates himself adhered to the four elements/four qualities concept of basic structure (Galen also makes mention of On the Nature of Man in this regard), and both bodily state and mental disposition (i.e., the functions of the rational soul) are influenced, indeed determined, by the physical and climatic conditions through their effects on the krasis of the body.

9. Galen praises Hippocrates for his views but adds that the effects of place and climate on the soul are obvious to



everyone. He then returns to Plato, or rather his later followers, quoting from the Timaeus and Laws to show he too accepted that external factors, including climate, soil, and nutriments, dependent on the soil, affected all three components of the soul.

10. This section centers on three quotations from Plato, two from Laws on the drinking of wine, which clearly show that Plato believed wine could influence, for better or worse, the functioning of the soul, the effects depending in part on the stage of life and the underlying krasis. In the quotation from Timaeus, the focus is on pursuits, studies, and nurture, the last involving not only nutriments but also regimen as a whole. Galen refers to his own treatises, and particularly that on euchymia and kakochymia as determined by foods.

11. Should people be held responsible for their good and bad qualities given that these are dependent on their krasias? Regardless of the answer, people respond to others as if they were responsible for their nature. Galen dismisses the Stoic view that all are possessed of goodness but are perverted by those with whom they associate. On the age-old question of nature or nurture, Galen’s view, as stated in this final section, is this: bad habits arise naturally in the nonrational parts of the soul, and false opinions in the rational part. By proper nurture, good habits and true opinions may develop. Sagacity and stupidity in the rational soul, however, largely follow the krasias, while these in turn follow the first genesis and euchymous regimens. Dyskrasias, arising for whatever reason, may have various adverse effects according to the predominant quality or qualities.

DOI: 10.4159/DLCL.galen-souls_traits_bodily_temperament.2020