Galen, On Non-Uniform Distemperment

LCL 546: 290-291

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ἢ γυμνασαμένων ἐπὶ πλέον, ἢ πάντως ἀργησάντων, ἤ τι τοιοῦτον ἕτερον παθόντων. οὐ μὴν ἀλλὰ κἀκ τῶν ἔξωθεν προσπιπτόντων ἀνώμαλοι δυσκρασίαι τοῖς σώμασιν ἡμῶν πλεῖον ἐγγίγνονται, θερμαινομένοις, ἢ ψυχομένοις, ἢ ξηραινομένοις, ἢ ὑγραινομένοις. ἁπλαῖ μὲν γὰρ αὗται τέσσαρες εἰσι δυσκρασίαι,2 καθότι κἀν τοῖς περὶ κράσεων ὑπομνήμασιν ἐδείκνυτο· σύνθετοι δὲ ἐξ αὐτῶν εἰσιν ἕτεραι τέσσαρες, ἢ θερμαινομένων τε ἅμα καὶ ξηραινομένων, ἢ ψυχομένων τε ἅμα καὶ ὑγραινομένων, ψυχομένων τε ἅμα καὶ ξηραινομένων, ἢ θερμαινομένων τε ἅμα καὶ ὑγραινομένων. ὅτι δ’ αἱ τοιαῦται δυσκρασίαι διαφέρουσι τῶν ὁμαλῶν μόνον τῷ μὴ κατὰ πάντα τὰ μόρια τοῦ δυσκράτως διακειμένου σώματος ὡσαύτως ὑπάρχειν, ἄντικρυς δῆλον.

Ὅστις μὲν οὖν ὁ τρόπος ἐστί τῆς γενέσεώς ἁπάσαις ταῖς ἀνωμάλοις δυσκρασίαις, ἐν τῷδε τῷ γράμματι πρόκειται μοι διελθεῖν. ἵνα δὲ σαφὴς ὁ λόγος γένηται, ἀναμνῆσαι σε χρὴ πάντων τῶν τοῦ σώματος μορίων, ἀρξαμένους ἀπὸ τῶν μεγίστων, ἃ δὴ καὶ τοῖς ἰδιώταις γνωρίζεται.3 χεῖρας γάρ τοι καὶ πόδας καὶ γαστέρα καὶ θώρακα καὶ κεφαλὴν οὐκ ἔστιν ὃστις ἀγνοεῖ. |

2. 735KΤεμνέσθω δὴ πάλιν ὑφ’ ἡμῶν ἓν ὁτιοῦν ἐξ αὐτῶν εἰς τὰ προσεχῆ καλούμενα μόρια, σκέλος μὲν εἰ τύχοι εἰς μηρὸν τε καὶ κνήμην καὶ πόδα, χεὶρ δ’ αὖ εἰς βραχίονά τε καὶ πῆχυν καὶ ἄκραν χεῖρα. καὶ μὲν δὴ καὶ ἄκρας χειρὸς οἰκεῖα μόρια καρπὸς τε καὶ μετακάρπιον



excessively, are altogether inactive, or are affected by something else of this kind. But further, more non-uniform dyskrasias supervene in our bodies when heated, cooled, dried, or wet by things befalling them externally. These are the four simple dyskrasias, as shown in the treatises, On Krasias (Temperaments).5 There are four other dyskrasias compounded from these, when bodies are either heated and dried at the same time, or cooled and wet at the same time, or cooled and dried at the same time, or heated and wet at the same time. It is quite clear that such [non-uniform] dyskrasias differ from those that are uniform only by not having all the parts of the body similarly disposed dyskratically.

Therefore, what lies before me to go over in this book is the manner of genesis of all the non-uniform dyskrasias. In order for the discussion to be clear, it is necessary for you to call to mind all the parts of the body, beginning from the largest, which are certainly also known to laymen. For undoubtedly no one is unaware of the arms, legs, abdomen, chest, and head. |

2. 735KLet any one of these parts in turn be divided by us into the so-called proximate parts—a leg, for example, into thigh, shank, and foot, or again, an arm into upper arm, forearm, and hand; and further certainly, into specific parts of the hand—wrist, metacarpus, and fingers—while

DOI: 10.4159/DLCL.galen-nonuniform_distemperment.2020