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πάρεστι καταπιόντι βραχὺ κραθέντων αὐτῶν αἰσθάνεσθαι θερμασίας εἰς ὅλον ἰούσης τὸ σῶμα. μὴ μέντοι πικροί γε ἔστωσαν ὑπὸ παλαιότητος οἱ οἶνοι καὶ μάλιστα ἐφ᾿ ὧν ὁ τοῦ κάμνοντος στόμαχος ὑπὸ τῆς ξανθῆς ἀδικεῖται χολῆς. οὔτε γὰρ ἔτι τὸ τῶν οἴνων εὔχυμον καὶ τρόφιμον ἔχουσιν οἱ τοιοῦτοι καὶ ἀηδεῖς ὄντες αὐτῷ τούτῳ τὸν στόμαχον ἀνιῶσιν.

ἄριστοι τοίνυν εἰσὶν ὅσοι τῶν οἴνων αὐστηροὶ τὴν φύσιν ὄντες αἰσθητὴν μὲν οὐκέτι τὴν στύψιν ἔχουσι διὰ τὴν παλαιότητα, σαφῆ δ᾿ ἱκανῶς τὴν θερμασίαν. ἅπαντα γὰρ ὧν δεόμεθα ποιήσουσιν, ἐφ᾿ ὧν ὁ στόμαχός 831Kἐστι | πικρόχολος, ἡδέως τε λαμβανόμενοι καὶ πέψει καὶ ἀναδόσει συνεργοῦντες καὶ τὴν κακίαν τοῦ χυμοῦ πραΰνοντες καὶ θερμὴν τὴν ἕξιν ἐργαζόμενοι καὶ ῥωννύντες τὸν στόμαχον. ἄριστοι δ᾿ εἰσὶ τῶν τοιούτων οἴνων Σουρρεντῖνος, Σιγνῖνος, Σαβῖνος, Τιβουρτῖνος, Μάρσος, Ἰταλιῶται πάντες οὗτοι, στύφοντες μέν, ἀλλ᾿ οὐχ ὁμοίως ἅπαντες. ὁ μὲν γὰρ Σουρρεντῖνος μετρίως τε στύφει καὶ θερμότερος τῶν ἄλλων καὶ ἡδίων ἐστίν. ἐφεξῆς δ᾿ ὁ Τιβουρτῖνος ὁ εὐγενής· ἔστι γάρ τις καὶ ἄλλος Τιβουρτῖνος ἄτονος ὁμοίως Σαβίνῳ, βραχείας μετέχων στύψεως. ὁ δὲ Σιγνῖνος αὐστηρότερος· καὶ τούτου πολὺ μᾶλλον ὁ Μάρσος. πάντες οὗτοι χρηστοὶ πικροχόλῳ στομάχῳ. καὶ διὰ τοῦτ᾿ αὐτοῖς χρηστέον, ὅταν γ᾿ ἤτοι ὑπὸ καυσωδῶν πυρετῶν ἀδικηθεὶς ἐπιφέρῃ συγκοπήν, ἢ καὶ ἄλλως πολλῆς εἰς αὐτὸν ἤτοι ῥυείσης ἢ ἀναποθείσης χολῆς.

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Method of Medicine XII

yourself, if you drink a little of these [wines] when they are mixed, to sense the warmth as it spreads to the whole body. Do not, however, let the wines be bitter due to great age, and particularly in those instances where the patient’s cardiac orifice is adversely affected by yellow bile; such wines are no longer wholesome and nutritious, and being unpleasant, harm the cardiac orifice of the stomach for this very reason.

Therefore, the best wines are those that are naturally sharp and no longer have any perceptible astringency due to their age, but have a heat that is very clear, for they will do everything we require for those in whom the cardiac orifice of the stomach is picrocholic, since they are pleasant831K to take, facilitate digestion and distribution, mitigate the badness of the humor, bring about a state that is hot, and strengthen the cardiac orifice of the stomach. The best of such wines are the Sorrentine, Signine, Sabine, Tiburtine, and Marsyan; all these are Italian and astringent, but not all in like manner.7 The Sorrentine is moderate in terms of astringency and more warming and more pleasant than the others. Next in order is the Tiburtine of high quality; for there is another Tiburtine which is weak like the Sabine and partakes of little astringency. The Signine is more harsh and the Marsyan much more than this. All these are useful for the cardiac orifice of the stomach that is picrocholic and, because of this, we must use them whenever someone is either adversely affected by a burning fever which brings syncope, or otherwise when there is much bile either flowing or attracted to the cardiac orifice of the

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DOI: 10.4159/DLCL.galen-method_medicine.2011