Galen, Method of Medicine

LCL 518: 224-225

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1. Οὔτε γένος οὔτε εἶδος οὔτε διαφορά τίς ἐστι πυρετῶν, ὡς ἔνιοι νομίζουσιν οἱ μετὰ συμπτωμάτων συνιστάμενοι, ἀλλ᾿ ὥσπερ ἄλλο τι ἄλλῳ νόσημά τε νοσήματι καὶ σύμπτωμα συμπτώματι καθ᾿ ἕνα χρόνον ἐπιπλέκεται περὶ ἓν σῶμα, κατὰ τὸν αὐτὸν τρόπον ἅμα πυρετῷ γίγνεταί τινα μείζω συμπτώματα, περιττοτέρας προνοίας δεόμενα. τῶν μὲν γὰρ μικροτέρων ἐξ ἀνάγκης ἑπομένων ταῖς γενέσεσι τῶν πυρετῶν οὐδὲ μέμνηνται τὴν ἀρχήν, ἀλλ᾿ ὡς οὐδ᾿ ὅλως ὄντα παραλείπουσιν 811Kἀνώνυμα· τὰ δ᾿ ἤτοι | κατὰ τὸ σπάνιον ἐπιγινόμενα τοῖς πυρέττουσιν ἢ τὸ σύνηθες ὑπερβάλλοντα μέγεθος ἐξαιρέτου παρὰ τἄλλα διδασκαλίας ἀξιοῦσιν.

εἰσὶ μὲν οὖν αὐτῶν αἱ πρῶται διαφοραὶ τρεῖς. ἤτοι γὰρ ἐν ταῖς τῶν ἐνεργειῶν βλάβαις εἰσὶν ἢ ἐν ταῖς τῶν ἐπεχομένων ἢ κενουμένων ἀμετρίαις, ἢ διαθέσεσι σωμάτων ὑπάρχουσι. οὐ γὰρ δὴ τό γε τέταρτον1 γένος ἐν συμπτώμασι θετέον, εἰ καὶ ὅτι μάλιστα πάμπολλοι καὶ τοῦτο τοῖς συμπτώμασιν ἔμιξαν, οἷον ἐρυσιπέλατα καὶ ὀφθαλμίας καὶ ἕλκη καὶ παρωτίδας, ὅσα τ᾿ ἄλλα τοιαῦτα. τῶν δ᾿ εἰρημένων τριῶν αἱ μὲν τῶν


Method of Medicine XII


1. There is not one class, kind, or differentia of fevers, as810K some [doctors] who conflate them with symptoms think. Rather, just as one disease is combined with another disease, and one symptom with another symptom at one particular time in one body, in the same way, certain more serious symptoms occur along with a fever, and require quite considerable forethought. These doctors don’t mention at all the origin of the lesser symptoms that necessarily follow the genesis of fevers; they leave them unnamed as if they were altogether nonexistent. They do, however, think the811K symptoms that either seldom supervene, or that exceed the customary magnitude in those with fever are worthy of special teaching compared to the other symptoms.

There are three primary differentiae of these symptoms. They lie either in the injuries of functions, or in the excesses of those things retained or evacuated, or they are in the conditions of bodies. You must definitely not establish the fourth class in symptoms, even if it is the case that very many [doctors] particularly have mixed this with the symptoms. Examples are erysipelas, ophthalmia, wound ulcer, parotid gland swelling, and other such things. Of the three differentiae mentioned, the injuries of functions, if

DOI: 10.4159/DLCL.galen-method_medicine.2011