Galen, Hygiene

LCL 535: 2-3

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1. 1KΤῆς περὶ τὸ σῶμα τἀνθρώπου τέχνης μιᾶς οὔσης, ὡς ἐν ἑτέρῳ δέδεικται γράμματι, δύο ἐστὶ τὰ πρῶτά τε καὶ μέγιστα μόρια· καλεῖται δὲ τὸ μὲν ἕτερον αὐτῶν ὑγιεινόν, τὸ δὲ ἕτερον θεραπευτικόν, ἔμπαλιν ἔχοντα πρὸς ἄλληλα ταῖς ἐνεργείαις, ἐπειδή γε τῷ μὲν φυλάξαι, τῷ δ’ ἀλλοιῶσαι πρόκειται τὴν περὶ τὸ σῶμα κατάστασιν. ἐπεὶ δὲ καὶ χρόνῳ καὶ ἀξιώματι πρότερόν ἐστιν ὑγεία νόσου, χρὴ δήπου καὶ ἡμᾶς, ὅπως ἄν τις ταύτην φυλάξειεν, ἐσκέφθαι πρότερον, ἐφεξῆς δὲ καί, ὡς ἄν τις ἄριστα 2Kνόσους ἐξιῷτο. κοινὴ δ’ ἀμφοτέροις ὁδὸς τῆς εὑρέσεως, εἰ γνοίημεν, ὁποία τίς ἐστιν ἡ διάθεσις τοῦ σώματος, ἣν ὑγείαν ὀνομάζομεν· οὐ γὰρ ἂν οὔτε φυλάττειν αὐτὴν παροῦσαν οὔτ’ ἀνακτήσασθαι διαφθειρομένην οἷοί τε ἦμεν ἀγνοοῦντες τὸ παράπαν, ἥτις πότ’ ἐστι. γέγραπται δὲ ἡμῖν ἑτέρωθι καὶ περὶ τοῦδε καὶ δέδεικται τῶν μὲν ὁμοιομερῶν ὁναμοζομένων ἠ ὑγεία, ψυχροῦ καὶ θερμοῦ καὶ ξηροῦ καὶ ὑγροῦ, συμμετρία τις ὑπάρχουσα, τῶν δ’ ὀργανικῶν ἐκ τῆς τῶν ὁμοιομερῶν συνθέσεώς τε καὶ ποσότητος καὶ πηλικότητος καὶ διαπλάσεως ἀποτελουμένη.




1. 1KAlthough there is one art pertaining to the body of man, as I have shown in another treatise, there are two primary and major parts of this.1 One of these is called hygiene and the other therapeutics. They are the opposites of each other in terms of functions, since what is proposed on the one hand is to preserve the state of the body, while on the other it is to change it. But since, in both time and importance, health comes before disease, it clearly behooves us to consider first how someone might preserve health and then, in turn, how someone might best 2Kcure diseases. There is a common path of discovery for both—it is to know what kind of condition of the body it is that we call health. Should we be altogether ignorant of what this condition is, we could neither preserve health when present nor restore it, if it were being destroyed. I have also written about this elsewhere and have shown that health of the so-called homoiomeres is a balance of cold and hot, and dry and wet, while health of the organic parts, whose composition is derived from the homoiomeres, is determined by number, magnitude and conformation.2 As a result,

DOI: 10.4159/DLCL.galen-hygiene.2018