ἑκάστῳ δόξῃ λέγειν ἀξιοῦντες. ἐγὼ δὲ τὸ μὲν ὡς ἄν τῳ παραστῇ ποιεῖσθαι τὴν ἑρμηνείαν οὐ μέμφομαι, τὸ δ’ ἐγκαλεῖν τοῖς ἑτέρως ὀνομάζουσιν οὐκ ἐπαινῶ, τὴν πλείστην καὶ μεγίστην φροντίδα τῶν πραγμάτων αὐτῶν, ὑπὲρ ὧν ὁ λόγος ἐστίν, ἡγούμενος χρῆναι ποιεῖσθαι μᾶλλον ἢ τῶν ὀνομάτων. εἴτ’ οὖν ἀρίστην κατασκευὴν σώματος εἴτε διάθεσιν εἴθ’ ἕξιν εἴτε σχέσιν εἴτε φύσιν εἴθ’ ὁπωσοῦν ἑτέρως ὀνομάζειν ἐθέλοι τις, οὕτω θέμενος, ἐὰν ἀπό τε τῆς ὁμολογουμένης ἐννοίας | 739Kἄρξηται καὶ προϊὼν ἐπὶ τὴν τῆς οὐσίας εὕρεσιν ἐν τάξει τινὶ καὶ μεθόδῳ ποιῆται τὴν ζήτησιν, ἐπαινέσομαι τοῦτον ἐγὼ πολὺ μᾶλλον ἢ εἰ περὶ τῶν ὀνομάτων πάνδεινός τίς μοι φαίνοιτο. καὶ τοίνυν καὶ ἡμεῖς οὕτω ποιῶμεν ἀπὸ τῆς κοινῆς ἐννοίας ἀρξάμενοι καὶ ταύτην διορισάμενοι μεθόδῳ προΐωμεν ἐπὶ τὸ συνεχὲς τῆς σκέψεως.

2. Τίς οὖν ἔννοια κοινὴ πᾶσιν ἀνθρώποις ἐστὶν ἀρίστης κατασκευῆς σώματος; ἀκοῦσαι μὲν γὰρ ἔστι λεγόντων αὐτῶν οὐχ ὁμοίως τῇ λέξει, νοούντων δ’ ἁπάντων ἓν καὶ ταὐτὸν πρᾶγμα. τὸ γοῦν ὑγιεινότατον σῶμα πάντες μὲν ἑξῆς ἐπαινοῦσιν, ὥσπερ οὖν καὶ τὸ εὐεκτικώτατον, εἰς ἓν μέν τι πρᾶγμα βλέποντες ἀμφότεροι καὶ τούτῳ τὴν διάνοιαν ἐπιβάλλοντες, οὐ μὴν οὔτε διηρθρωμένως αὐτὸ νοοῦντες οὔθ’ ἑρμηνεῦσαι σαφῶς ἐπιστάμενοι. καὶ γὰρ καὶ τὰς ἐνεργείας ἁπάντων τῶν τοῦ σώματος μορίων εὐρώστους ἔχειν ἀξιοῦσι καὶ μὴ ῥᾳδίως ὑπὸ τῶν νοσωδῶν αἰτίων νικᾶσθαι. τούτων δὲ τὸ μὲν ἐν ταῖς ἐνεργείαις ταῖς κατὰ φύσιν ὑγίεια, τὸ δὲ



a body, or whatever it might seem to each person to be best to say. I would not find fault with someone standing by the explanation he makes, but I would not approve of his objecting to those who name otherwise. What I think it is necessary to do is to give the most and greatest thought to the matters themselves, about which the argument is, rather than to the names. Therefore, if someone should wish to use the term best “constitution” of a body (kataskeuē), or “condition” (diathesis), or “state” (hexis), or “state” (schesis), or “nature” (physis), or whatever else, if after establishing it in this way, | 739Khe begins from the agreed concept and proceeds to the discovery of the essence, carrying out the investigation with a certain order and method, I would commend him much more than I would someone who seems to me clever with names. And accordingly, let us also proceed in this way, beginning from the common concept, and having defined this, go forward by method to the continuation of our inquiry.

2. What, then, is the concept of the best constitution of a body common to all men? It is possible to hear the same things said dissimilarly in speech, although all are thinking about one and the same matter. At any rate, all, one after another, praise the most healthy body, just as they also do the most well-conditioned body, both looking at this one matter, directing their thought to it, although neither conceiving of it distinctly nor knowing how to explain it clearly. For truly, they hold the view that the functions of all the parts of the body should be strong and not easily overcome by the causes of diseases. For them, health is in the functions being in accordance with nature, while this,

DOI: 10.4159/DLCL.galen-best_constitution_body.2020