ΓΑΛΗΝΟΥ ΠΕΡΙ ΑΡΙΣΤΗΣ ΚΑΤΑΣΚΕΥΗΣ ΤΟΥ ΣΩΜΑΤΟΣ
1. 737KΤίς ἡ ἀρίστη κατασκευὴ τοῦ σώματος ἡμῶν; ἆρά γ’ ἡ εὐκρατοτάτη, καθάπερ ἔδοξε πολλοῖς τῶν παλαιῶν ἰατρῶν τε καὶ φιλοσόφων; ἢ τὴν μὲν ἀρίστην ἀναγκαῖον εὐκρατοτάτην ὑπάρχειν, οὐ μὴν τήν γ’ εὐκρατοτάτην ἐξ ἀνάγκης ἀρίστην; ἡ μὲν γὰρ ἐκ θερμοῦ καὶ ψυχροῦ καὶ ξηροῦ καὶ ὑγροῦ σύμμετρος κρᾶσις ὑγίεια τῶν ὁμοιομερῶν1 ἐστι τοῦ σώματος ἡμῶν· ἡ δ’ ἐκ τούτων ἁπάντων | 738Kτοῦ ζῴου διάπλασις ἐν θέσει καὶ μεγέθει καὶ σχήματι καὶ ἀριθμῷ τῶν συνθέτων ὑπάρχει καὶ δόξειεν ἂν ἐγχωρεῖν2 ἐξ ἁπάντων ἢ ἐκ τῶν πλείστων γε μορίων εὐκράτων συγκείμενόν τι σῶμα περὶ τὸ μέγεθος αὐτῶν ἢ τὸν ἀριθμὸν ἢ τὴν διάπλασιν ἢ τὴν πρὸς ἄλληλα σύνταξιν ἡμαρτῆσθαι.
Πειρατέον οὖν ὑπὲρ ἁπάντων τούτων ἐφεξῆς διελθεῖν ἀρξαμένους ἀπὸ τῶν ὀνομάτων, οἷς ἐξ ἀνάγκης χρώμεθα κατὰ τόνδε τὸν λόγον, ἐπειδὴ καὶ περὶ τούτων ἐρίζουσί τινες, οἱ μὲν κατασκευὴν ἀρίστην, οἱ δὲ διάθεσιν, οἱ δ’ ἕξιν ἢ σχέσιν ἢ φύσιν σώματος ἢ ὅπως ἂν
- 1post ὁμοιομερῶν add. μελῶν K
- 2post ἐγχωρεῖν: ἐξ ἁπάντων ἢ H; τὸ K
1. ON THE BEST CONSTITUTION OF OUR BODY
1. 737KWhat is the best constitution of our body? Is it, in fact, the most eukratic, as it seemed to many of the doctors and philosophers of ancient times? Or is it that the best constitution is necessarily the most eukratic, but in fact the most eukratic is not of necessity the best? Health is a balanced krasis of hot, cold, wet, and dry of the homoiomerous parts of our body, whereas | 738Kthe conformation of the animal is in the combination of all these [homoiomerous parts] in terms or position, magnitude, form, and number. And it would seem possible that even a body compounded from all or a very large number of eukratic parts could be at fault regarding their magnitude, number, conformation, or arrangement with each other.
We must attempt, then, to go over all these matters in order, beginning from the terms we use of necessity in this discussion, since there are some who contend about these. Some think fit to say best “constitution,” some “condition,” some “state” (hexis), some “state” (schesis),1 or “nature” of
- 1Galen consistently makes a distinction between hexis as a stable and relatively permanent state and schesis as an unstable and temporary state.