ΓΑΛΗΝΟΥ ΤΕΧΝΗ ΙΑΤΡΙΚΗ
305KΤρεῖς εἰσιν αἱ πᾶσαι διδασκαλίαι τάξεως ἐχόμεναι· πρώτη μέν, ἡ ἐκ τῆς τοῦ τέλους ἐννοίας κατὰ ἀνάλυσιν γινομένη. δευτέρα δέ, ἡ ἐκ συνθέσεως τῶν κατὰ ἀνάλυσιν εὑρεθέντων· τρίτη δέ, ἡ ἐξ ὅρου διαλύσεως, ἣν νῦν ἐνιστάμεθα. καλεῖν δὲ ἔξεστι τὴν τοιαύτην διδασκαλίαν, οὐ μόνον ὅρου διάλυσιν, ἀλλὰ καὶ διάπτυξιν, ὥς τινες ὠνόμασαν, ἢ ἀνάλυσιν, ἢ διαίρεσιν, ὡς ἕτεροί τινες, ἢ ἐξάπλωσιν, ἢ ἐξήγησιν, ὡς ἄλλοι.
ἐπεχείρησαν μὲν οὖν ἔνιοι τῶν Ἡροφιλείων τοιαύτην ποιήσασθαι διδασκαλίαν, ὥσπερ καὶ Ἡρακλείδης ὁ Ἐρυθραῖος· ἐπεχείρησαν δὲ καὶ τὴν κατὰ σύνθεσιν, | 306Kαὐτοί τε οἱ Ἡροφίλειοι, καί τινες τῶν
THE ART OF MEDICINE
305ΚAll teachings have an order in which there are three components. The first is from the concept of the end (τέλος)1 and arises from analysis. The second is from the synthesis of those things discovered by analysis. The third is from dialysis (breakdown) of a definition, which is what we are now setting up. It is possible to call such a teaching not only dialysis of a definition, but also explication, as some term it, or analysis, or division, as others call it, or explanation or exegesis as still others call it.2
Some of the Herophileans have tried to create such a teaching, as has Heraclides the Erythraean too.3 Also, some of these same Herophileans have tried to create the teaching relating to synthesis, 306Kas have some of the Erasistrateans
- 1Τέλος is a word with a multiplicity of meanings. It occupies almost three complete columns in LSJ. The sense here is “end result,” “ultimate purpose,” or “objective aimed at.”
- 2Galen begins by referring to two terms also used at the outset in De constitutione artis medicae (“analysis” and “dialysis”), to which he adds a third—“synthesis.” See Boudon, Galien, 274, with reference to her article: “Médicin et enseignement dans l’Art Medical de Galien,” Revue des Etudes Grecques 106 (1993): 120–41.
- 3Herophilus of Chalcedon (ca. 330–260 BC): a noted Alexandrian doctor, described as a Dogmatic, who accepted the four elements/four qualities theory of structure and the importance of pneuma. He made notable contributions to neuroanatomy and to pulse theory. Heraclides (ca. 30BC–AD 30) was a student of Chrysermus (1st c. BC). Both were noted Herophileans. Heraclides wrote a work in seven books (now lost) entitled On the Herophilean Sect.