Tools

FRL V: ORATORY, PART 3

humile aut {in}2 longius ductum; ac non propria verba rerum sed pleraque translata, sic tamen ut ea non inruisse in alienum locum sed immigrasse in suum diceres; nec vero haec soluta nec diffluentia sed astricta numeris, non aperte nec eodem modo semper sed varie dissimulanterque conclusis. [275] erant autem et verborum et sententiarum illa lumina quae vocant Graeci σχήματα, quibus tamquam insignibus in ornatu distinguebatur omnis oratio. qua de re agitur autem illud quod multis locis in iuris consultorum includitur formulis, id3 ubi esset videbat. [276] accedebat ordo rerum plenus artis, actio liberalis totumque dicendi placidum et sanum genus. quod si est optimum suaviter dicere, nihil est quod melius hoc quaerendum putes. sed cum a nobis paulo ante dictum sit tria videri esse quae orator efficere deberet, ut doceret, ut delectaret, ut moveret, duo summe tenuit, ut et rem illustraret disserendo et animos eorum qui audirent devinciret voluptate; aberat tertia illa laus, qua permoveret atque incitaret animos, quam plurimum pollere diximus; nec erat ulla vis atque contentio: sive consilio, quod eos, quorum altior oratio actioque esset ardentior, furere atque bacchari arbitraretur, sive quod natura non esset ita factus sive quod non consuesset sive quod non nosset.4 hoc unum illi, si nihil utilitatis habebat, afuit; si opus erat, defuit.

110

140 M. CALIDIUS

words in their proper meanings, but also many in a metaphorical sense, yet in such a way that you would say, not that they had usurped an alien place, but rather that they had moved into their own; furthermore, these [words] were not left loose and disjointed, but were bound together by rhythms, constructed not obviously and not in always the same manner, but rather in varied and disguised ways. [275] There were also those highlights of words and ideas that the Greeks call schemata [“figures”], with which, like decorations on a garment, his entire speech was embellished. Moreover, he saw clearly “the point at issue,” that [phrase] that is included in the formulae of legal experts in many places. [276] In addition there was an arrangement of subject matter full of technical skill, a gentlemanlike delivery, and, overall, a quiet and sincere manner of speaking. If then it is best to speak with charm, you should think that there is nothing better that needs to be sought than him. But since it was said by us a little while ago that there seem to be three things that the orator must effect, to teach, to please, and to move, two of these he mastered to the highest degree, so that he lucidly explained a matter in exposition and bound the minds of those who listened by charm. That third merit was absent, that by which one moves and arouses emotions, which we have described as being most powerful; there was no force and vigor: be it due to deliberate choice, since he believed that those whose language was more elevated and whose delivery was more vehement were in frenzy and delirium, or because he was not predisposed to this by nature, or because he was not used to it, or because he did not have the knowledge. The absence of this one quality for him was, if it was of no use, a lack, if it was essential, a defect. [continued by F 3]

111
DOI: 10.4159/DLCL.fragmentary_republican_latin-oratory.2019