F 5 Cic. Fam. 5.4.2 [ad Q. Metellum Nepotem]
nunc mihi Quintus frater meus mitissimam tuam orationem, quam in senatu habuisses, perscripsit ...
121 C. IULIUS CAESAR
C. Iulius Caesar (100–44 BC; cos. 59, 48, 46, 45, 44 BC; RE Iulius 131) formed an alliance with M. Licinius Crassus Dives (102) and Cn. Pompeius Magnus (111) in 60 BC; later he became consul several times and dictator (perpetuus). He was assassinated on the Ides of March 44 BC in the Curia Pompeia (on his life see, e.g., Weinstock 1971; Meier 1995; Gelzer 2008; Stevenson 2015; on his career and oratory, see Lowrie 2008; van der Blom 2016, 146–80; on his speeches, pp. 305–12; 2017; on his style, see von Albrecht 1989, 54–58 [esp. on F 29]; see also L. Grillo and C.B. Krebs [eds.], The Cambridge Companion to the Writings of Julius Caesar [Cambridge, 2017]).
Caesar studied oratory with M. Antonius Gnipho (Suet. Gram. et rhet. 7.2) and later with Apollonius Molo of Rhodes (T 11; F 17). In addition, Caesar wrote playful poetry (Plin. Ep.5.3.5; Tac. Dial. 21.6); a tragedy (TrRF 1:140); letters (Cic. Att. 9.6A, 9.7C, 9.13A.1, 9.16.2, 10.8B); two volumes of Anticatones following the suicide of M. Porcius Cato (126); a work De analogia, dedicated to Cicero, about the correct use of Latin (T 1; GRF, pp.145–57); and commentarii on his military and political achievements (T 2; Caes. BGall.; BCiv.). These commentarii include speeches put into the mouths of characters (esp.
F 5 Cicero, Letters to Friends [to Q. Caecilius Metellus Nepos]
Now Quintus, my brother, has written out for me your most gentle speech that you had delivered in the Senate [on January 1, 57 BC] ...
121 C. IULIUS CAESAR
Caes. BGall. 7.77; BCiv. 2.31–32) and indications of some of Caesar’s own speeches (on Caesar’s literary output, see Suet. Iul. 55–56).
In Cicero, Caesar is praised for his pure and elegant Latinity and well-chosen vocabulary (T 1–2; cf. T 4, 13). He was regarded as a great and gifted orator, renowned for his style, delivery, and force, and as almost as accomplished in this area as in the field of war (T 2–8, 10–13; Quint. Inst. 12.10.11).
In addition to numerous routine announcements during his consulships, Caesar is attested as having made various utterances as a politician and general (for speeches in the Senate, see, e.g., Vell. Pat. 2.50.2; in public meetings, see, e.g., Plut. Caes. 55.1; Vell. Pat. 2.50.2; Cass. Dio 41.16.1; to soldiers, see, e.g., Cass. Dio 42.53.1–54.3; Plut. Caes. 43.1–2, 51.2; Suet. Iul. 67.2, 70; Tac. Ann. 1.42.3; App. B Civ. 2.92.388–94.396; Caes. BCiv. 3.90; BHisp.42; Polyaenus, Strat. 8.23.15–17, 22, 29; Frontin. Str. 1.9.4). Caesar is also attested as having spoken in support of Cn. Pompeius Magnus (111) being given extraordinary powers (Plut. Pomp.25.8; Cass. Dio 36.43.2). He clashed with Q. Lutatius Catulus (96) on several occasions (Vell. Pat. 2.43.3–4; Plut. Caes. 6.6–7; Cic. Att. 2.24.3; Suet. Iul. 15),