Ti. Sempronius Gracchus (tr. pl. 133 BC; RE Sempronius 54) became Tribune of the People after a military career. As Tribune he tried to initiate a series of measures for the benefit of the People, in particular by an agrarian reform (Plut. Ti. Gracch. 8–13; App. B Civ. 1.9.35–13.57). His activities resulted in controversy, and Ti. Gracchus was killed at the end of his Tribunate (on his life see Plut. Ti. Gracch.; App. B Civ. 1.9.35–17.72; on the lives of the Gracchi, see Stockton 1979).

After the early death of their father (10), the brothers Gracchi (34 + 48) had been carefully educated by their mother (T 2, 3, 8; Plut. Ti. Gracch. 1.7; Gracch. Comp.1.1); they also studied with Greek teachers, including Diophanes of Mytilene (T 2). In Cicero it is acknowledged that Ti. Gracchus was a learned man and an outstanding orator in his precision of thought and style of speaking, with great potential cut short by an untimely death (T 2, 4, 5). Ti. Gracchus is said to have been an avid auditor of M. Ae-

T 1 Cic. Brut. 96

[Cicero:] hunc studiose duo adulescentes ingeniosissimi et prope aequales C. Carbo et Ti. Gracchus audire soliti sunt ...

T 2 Cic. Brut. 103–4 (cf. 35 T 2)

[Cicero:] utinam in Ti. Graccho Gaioque Carbone talis mens ad rem publicam bene gerendam fuisset, quale ingenium




milius Lepidus Porcina (25) (T 1). Cicero’s assessment of the political achievements of the Gracchi varies according to context; he frequently deplores that they did not use their intellectual and rhetorical faculties to the benefit of the Republic (T 2, 5). In the Rhetorica ad Herennium Ti. Gracchus is listed as one of the writers from whom examples for students could be drawn (Rhet. Her. 4.7: 25 T5).

Additonal speeches of Ti. Gracchus as Tribune of the People (beyond those attested below) are mentioned in ancient sources (see also 48 F 68): on a treaty and arrangements with the Numantians (Vir. ill. 64.1–2); against his tribunician colleague M. Octavius (App. B Civ. 1.12.48–54; Plut. Ti. Gracch. 10.5–8); on the distribution of the inheritance of King Attalus (Plut. Ti. Gracch. 14; cf. 17 F3; 30 F 6); on his own behalf when seeking reelection as Tribune (App. B Civ. 1.14.58–62; Plut. Ti. Gracch. 16.3).

T 1 Cicero, Brutus

[Cicero:] Two young men of great talent and almost equal age, C. Carbo [C. Papirius Carbo (35)] and Ti. Gracchus, used to listen to him [M. Aemilius Lepidus Porcina (25)] eagerly ...

T 2 Cicero, Brutus (cf. 35 T 2)

[Cicero:] Would that Ti. Gracchus and Gaius Carbo [C. Papirius Carbo (35)] had possessed such an attitude to running public affairs well as they possessed talent for

DOI: 10.4159/DLCL.fragmentary_republican_latin-oratory.2019