[Dionysius of Halicarnassus], Ars Rhetorica

LCL 539: 430-431




1. Ἀκόλουθος ἂν εἴη καί, ὡς <ἂν>1 εἴποι τις, συναφής, ὦ Ἐχέκρατες, καὶ ὁ ἐν ταύταις ταῖς πανηγύρεσι λεγόμενος λόγος, 284οὐκ εἰς αὐτὴν μέντοι τὴν πανήγυριν, ἀλλ’ εἰς τοὺς ἀνταγωνιστὰς τοὺς ἐν τῇ πανηγύρει καὶ τοῖς ἀγωνισταῖς ἀθληταῖς δή που, ὁ προτρεπτικὸς οὕτως λεγόμενος. σκεπτέον οὖν πρῶτον εὐθύς, ὅς τίς ποτε ὁ λέγων· νῦν μὲν γὰρ ἴσως πολίτης, νῦν δὲ καὶ αὐτῶν τῶν περὶ τὸν ἀγῶνά τις, ἐγὼ δὲ ἤδη καὶ τὸν ἀγωνοθέτην εἶδον ἀγωνιστὴν τούτου τοῦ λόγου γεγενημένον, ὡς ἔγωγε οἶδα καὶ Ὀλυμπίασιν καὶ ἐπ’ ἐμοῦ τοῦτο γενόμενον καὶ Πυθοῖ καὶ ἄλλοθι πολλαχοῦ τισίν.2

2. Τὰς γὰρ ἀρχὰς ἴσως που καὶ ἐντεῦθέν τις οὐκ ἀπὸ καιροῦ ποιήσεται. εἰ μὲν πολίτης εἴη, ὅτι καὶ αὐτὸς πεισθεὶς τοῖς ἀγωνοθέταις καὶ τῷ τῆς πόλεως νόμῳ εἰς τὸν ἀγῶνα καθῆκεν ἑαυτὸν καὶ παρεβάλετο κινδύνῳ οὐχ ἧττον ὄντι ἐργώδει· ἐκεῖνος μὲν γὰρ σώματος, ὅδε δὲ ψυχῆς. χαλεπώτεροι δὲ οἱ ἀγῶνες οἱ τῆς ψυχῆς ἢ <οἱ>3 τοῦ σώματος. ἐπὶ μὲν γὰρ τῆς ἀγωνίας τῶν σωμάτων καὶ φανερὰ ἡ νίκη καὶ ὑπὸ τοῖς ὀφθαλμοῖς,




1. Following this speech,1 and so to speak conjoined with it, Echecrates, is one which, though delivered at these panegyric festivals, focuses not on the festival itself but rather on the competitors in the festival, being addressed to them as an exhortation. First of all, we must take into account the speaker’s identity. Sometimes it may be a private citizen, sometimes a person connected with the games; indeed I have even seen the organizer (agōnothetēs) of the games perform this speech, as I know has happened at Olympia in my time, and at Pytho,2 and in many other places to various people.

2. It may well be appropriate to begin with this topic. If the speaker is a private citizen: “In obedience to the organizers and the law of the city, he has entered into competition and exposed himself to hazards no less arduous,3 for that endeavor involves the body, this one the intellect, and contests of the intellect are more difficult than those of the body. In physical competition the victory is clear and witnessed by the sharpest of our senses, our eyes;

DOI: 10.4159/DLCL.dionysius_halicarnassus-ars_rhetorica.2019