1. Οὐ μὲν δὴ οὐδὲ τούτων ἀπείρως ἔχειν τόν γε δὴ ὁδῷ τινι καὶ ἐπιστήμῃ μετιόντα λόγους χρή. ἀπευκτὰ μὲν γὰρ τὰ τοιαῦτα, ἀναγκαῖα δὲ ἀνθρώποις γε οὖσι καὶ παρελθοῦσιν εἰς τὸν ἀνθρώπινον βίον. ἀνθρώπῳ γὰρ γενομένῳ κατὰ τὸν τοῦ Καλλαίσχρου τὸν τῶν τριάκοντα βέβαιον μὲν οὐδέν, ὅτι μὴ κατθανεῖν γενομένῳ, καὶ ζῶντι εἶναι μὴ οἷόν τε ἐκτὸς ἄτης βαίνειν. ἐπειδὴ τοίνυν ἀμφὶ ταφὴν δύο λόγοι μεμηχάνηνται, ὁ μὲν κοινὸς πρὸς πόλιν ἅπασαν καὶ δῆμον [ὁ μὲν]1 τοῖς ἐν πολέμῳ πεσοῦσιν, ἰδίᾳ δὲ καὶ καθ’ ἕκαστον ἅτερος αὐτοῖν, οἷα δὴ τὰ πολλὰ ἐν εἰρήνῃ συμπίπτειν ἀνάγκη, ἐν διαφόροις ἡλικίαις ἑκάστῳ τῆς τελευτῆς συμπεσούσης· 278ὄνομά γε μὴν ἀμφοῖν ἓν καὶ τὸ αὐτό, ἐπιτάφιος οὕτως ὀνομαζόμενος. παραδείγματα δὲ αὐτῶν ἔστί που καὶ παρὰ τοῖς ἀρχαίοις, τοῦ μὲν κοινοῦ καὶ πολιτικοῦ παρά γε τῷ τοῦ Ὀλόρου καὶ παρὰ τῷ τοῦ Ἀρίστωνος, Λυσίας τε καὶ Ὑπερείδης καὶ ὁ Παιανιεὺς καὶ ὁ τοῦ Ἰσοκράτους ἑταῖρος Ναυκράτης πολλὰς
1. Anyone pursuing rhetoric systematically and expertly must be familiar with funeral speeches. Although we do not wish for such occasions, they are inevitable for beings who have entered into human life. For once a human is born, according to the son of Callaeschrus,1 one of the Thirty, nothing for him is certain except that, having been born, he will die, and while alive he cannot avoid adversity. Now two speeches concerning burial have been devised. One is public, intended for the entire city and its populace, delivered over those who have fallen in war. The other is spoken privately on an individual basis, as most often happens during peacetime when death befalls individuals at different times of life. All the same, both share one name, epitaphios. There are examples of these in ancient writers. There are civic and public speeches in Olorus’ son2 and Ariston’s son,3 while Lysias,4 Hyperides,5 the Paeanian,6 and Isocrates’ student Naucrates7 have furnished
- 1Critias, a sophist and leader of the “Thirty” tyrants in Athens, was killed in 403 BC. This passage is cited only here (cf. 88 B49 DK).
- 2Thucydides’ famous epitaphios (2.35–46), delivered by Pericles over the war dead in 431 BC.
- 3Plato’s Menexenus contains a fictive epitaphios over the Athenian war dead in 390 BC.
- 4Or. 2.
- 5Epitaphios, delivered in 322 BC over the Athenian dead in the Lamian war.
- 6Dem. Or. 60.
- 7He composed a funeral speech for Mausolus (d. 353 BC) that is not extant.