[Dionysius of Halicarnassus], Ars Rhetorica

LCL 539: 416-417

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[DH], ARS RHETORICA

6. ΜΕΘΟΔΟΣ ΕΠΙΤΑΦΙΩΝ

1. Οὐ μὲν δὴ οὐδὲ τούτων ἀπείρως ἔχειν τόν γε δὴ ὁδῷ τινι καὶ ἐπιστήμῃ μετιόντα λόγους χρή. ἀπευκτὰ μὲν γὰρ τὰ τοιαῦτα, ἀναγκαῖα δὲ ἀνθρώποις γε οὖσι καὶ παρελθοῦσιν εἰς τὸν ἀνθρώπινον βίον. ἀνθρώπῳ γὰρ γενομένῳ κατὰ τὸν τοῦ Καλλαίσχρου τὸν τῶν τριάκοντα βέβαιον μὲν οὐδέν, ὅτι μὴ κατθανεῖν γενομένῳ, καὶ ζῶντι εἶναι μὴ οἷόν τε ἐκτὸς ἄτης βαίνειν. ἐπειδὴ τοίνυν ἀμφὶ ταφὴν δύο λόγοι μεμηχάνηνται, ὁ μὲν κοινὸς πρὸς πόλιν ἅπασαν καὶ δῆμον [ὁ μὲν]1 τοῖς ἐν πολέμῳ πεσοῦσιν, ἰδίᾳ δὲ καὶ καθ’ ἕκαστον ἅτερος αὐτοῖν, οἷα δὴ τὰ πολλὰ ἐν εἰρήνῃ συμπίπτειν ἀνάγκη, ἐν διαφόροις ἡλικίαις ἑκάστῳ τῆς τελευτῆς συμπεσούσης· 278ὄνομά γε μὴν ἀμφοῖν ἓν καὶ τὸ αὐτό, ἐπιτάφιος οὕτως ὀνομαζόμενος. παραδείγματα δὲ αὐτῶν ἔστί που καὶ παρὰ τοῖς ἀρχαίοις, τοῦ μὲν κοινοῦ καὶ πολιτικοῦ παρά γε τῷ τοῦ Ὀλόρου καὶ παρὰ τῷ τοῦ Ἀρίστωνος, Λυσίας τε καὶ Ὑπερείδης καὶ ὁ Παιανιεὺς καὶ ὁ τοῦ Ἰσοκράτους ἑταῖρος Ναυκράτης πολλὰς

  • 1secl. Brinkmann
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6. FUNERAL SPEECHES

6. HOW TO COMPOSE FUNERAL SPEECHES

1. Anyone pursuing rhetoric systematically and expertly must be familiar with funeral speeches. Although we do not wish for such occasions, they are inevitable for beings who have entered into human life. For once a human is born, according to the son of Callaeschrus,1 one of the Thirty, nothing for him is certain except that, having been born, he will die, and while alive he cannot avoid adversity. Now two speeches concerning burial have been devised. One is public, intended for the entire city and its populace, delivered over those who have fallen in war. The other is spoken privately on an individual basis, as most often happens during peacetime when death befalls individuals at different times of life. All the same, both share one name, epitaphios. There are examples of these in ancient writers. There are civic and public speeches in Olorus’ son2 and Ariston’s son,3 while Lysias,4 Hyperides,5 the Paeanian,6 and Isocrates’ student Naucrates7 have furnished

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DOI: 10.4159/DLCL.dionysius_halicarnassus-ars_rhetorica.2019