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EARLY GREEK PHILOSOPHY VI

ἀρχὴν ἀναμφισβήτητον παρέχεσθαι, τὴν δ’ ἑρμηνείαν ἁπλῆν καὶ σεμνήν.

The Principle (D3–D13) The Justification of Monism (D3)

D3 (B2) Simpl. In Phys., pp. 151.31–152.7 [immediately after the proem; cf. R7]

ἐμοὶ δὲ δοκεῖ τὸ μὲν ξύμπαν εἰπεῖν πάντα τὰ ὄντα ἀπὸ τοῦ αὐτοῦ ἑτεροιοῦσθαι καὶ τὸ αὐτὸ εἶναι. καὶ τοῦτο εὔδηλον· εἰ γὰρ τὰ ἐν τῷδε τῷ κόσμῳ ἐόντα νῦν, γῆ καὶ ὕδωρ καὶ ἀὴρ καὶ πῦρ καὶ τὰ ἄλλα ὅσα φαίνεται ἐν τῷδε τῷ κόσμῳ ἐόντα, εἰ τούτων τι ἦν ἕτερον τοῦ ἑτέρου, ἕτερον ὂν τῇ ἰδίᾳ φύσει, καὶ μὴ τὸ αὐτὸ ἐὸν μετέπιπτε πολλαχῶς καὶ ἡτεροιοῦτο, οὐδαμῇ οὔτε μίσγεσθαι ἀλλήλοις ἠδύνατο, οὔτε ὠφέλησις τῷ ἑτέρῳ <γενέσθαι ἀπὸ τοῦ ἑτέρου>1 οὔτε βλάβη, οὐδ’ ἂν οὔτε φυτὸν ἐκ τῆς γῆς φῦναι οὔτε ζῷον οὔτε ἄλλο γενέσθαι οὐδέν, εἰ μὴ οὕτω συνίστατο ὥστε ταὐτὸ εἶναι. ἀλλὰ πάντα ταῦτα ἐκ τοῦ αὐτοῦ ἑτεροιούμενα ἄλλοτε ἀλλοῖα γίνεται καὶ εἰς τὸ αὐτὸ ἀναχωρεῖ.

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DIOGENES OF APOLLONIA

(arkhê) that is free of ambiguity, and a style that is simple and dignified.

The Principle (D3–D13) The Justification of Monism (D3)

D3 (B2) Simplicius, Commentary on Aristotle’s Physics [Immediately after the proem; cf. R7]

It is my view, to say it as a whole, that all the things that are are differentiated out of the same thing and are the same thing. And this is manifest: for if the things that exist now in this world—earth, water, air, fire, and all the other things of which it is visible that they exist in this world—if any one of these were different from the other, being different by its own nature, and it were not the case that it was transformed and was differentiated in many ways, being the same thing, then it would not be possible in any way either that things would mix with one another or that benefit or harm <would come about from the one> to the other, or that any plant could grow from the earth either, or any animal or anything else come to be, if they were not constituted in such a way that they were the same thing. But all these things come about, sometimes of one sort, sometimes of another, by being differentiated out of the same, and they return to the same.

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DOI: 10.4159/DLCL.diogenes_apollonia-doctrine.2016