Οὐκ ἔστι χαλεπώτερον οὐδέν, ὦ ἄνδρες δικασταί, ἢ ὅταν ἄνθρωπος δόξαν ἔχων καὶ δυνάμενος εἰπεῖν, τολμᾷ ψεύδεσθαι καὶ μαρτύρων εὐπορῇ. ἀνάγκη γάρ ἐστι τῷ φεύγοντι, μηκέτι περὶ τοῦ πράγματος μόνον λέγειν, ἀλλὰ καὶ περὶ αὐτοῦ τοῦ λέγοντος, 2ὡς οὐκ εἰκὸς αὐτῷ διὰ τὴν δόξαν πιστεύειν. εἰ γὰρ ἔθος καταστήσετε, τοῖς δυναμένοις εἰπεῖν καὶ δόξαν ἔχουσι μᾶλλον πιστεύειν ἢ τοῖς ἀδυνατωτέροις, ἐφ᾿ ὑμῖν αὐτοῖς ἔσεσθε τὸ ἔθος τοῦτο κατεσκευακότες. δέομαι οὖν ὑμῶν, εἴπερ τι καὶ ἄλλο πώποτε πρᾶγμα αὐτὸ καθ᾿ αὑτὸ ἐδικάσατε, μηδὲ μεθ᾿ ἑτέρων τὴν γνώμην γενόμενοι, μήτε μετὰ τῶν διωκόντων μήτε μετὰ τῶν φευγόντων, ἀλλὰ τὸ δίκαιον σκεψάμενοι, οὕτω καὶ νῦν διαγνῶναι. ἐξ ἀρχῆς δ᾿ ὑμῖν διηγήσομαι.3
Λύκων γὰρ ὁ Ἡρακλεώτης, ὦ ἄνδρες δικασταί, οὗτος ὃν καὶ αὐτὸς λέγει, τῇ τραπέζῃ τῇ τοῦ πατρὸς ἐχρῆτο, ὥσπερ καὶ οἱ ἄλλοι ἔμποροι, ξένος μὲν ὢν Ἀριστόνοῳ τῷ Δεκελεῖ καὶ Ἀρχεβιάδῃ τῷ Λαμπτρεῖ, ἄνθρωπος δέ τις σώφρων. οὗτος ἐπειδὴ
Apollodorus Against Callippus
There is no situation harder to deal with, men of the jury, than when a man possessing both reputation and ability to speak is audacious enough to lie and is well provided with witnesses. For it becomes necessary for the defendant, no longer to speak merely about the facts of the case, but about the character of the speaker as well, and to show that he ought not to be believed on account of his reputation. If you are to2 establish the custom, that those who are able speakers and who enjoy a reputation are more to be believed than men of less ability, it will be against yourselves that you will have established this custom. I beg you therefore, if you ever decided any other case upon its merits, without becoming partisans of either side, whether the plaintiff’s or the defendant’s, but looking to justice alone, to decide the present case upon these principles. And I shall set forth the facts to you from the beginning.
Lycon, the Heracleote,a men of the jury, of whom3 the plaintiff himself makes mention, was a customer of my father’s bank like the other merchants, a guest-friend of Aristonoüs of Deceleab and Archebiades of Lamptrae,c and a man of prudence. This Lycon, when