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Lucius Junius Moderatus Columella

Idus Octobres. Putre solum, quod Campani pullum vocant, plerumque desiderant; non deterius tamen etiam pinguibus harenis vel congesticia humo proveniunt, tantumque seminis quantum milium panicumque, interdum etiam duobus sextariis amplius in iugerum spargitur. Sed hoc idem semen Ciliciae Syriaeque regionibus ipse vidi mense Iunio Iulioque conseri et per autumnum, cum permaturuit, tolli.1

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Cicer aut2 cicercula, quae piso est similis, mense Ianuario aut Februario seri debet laeto loco caelo umido; quibusdam tamen3 Italiae locis ante Kalendas Novembris seritur. Tres modii iugerum implent. Nec ullum legumen minus agro nocet, sed raro respondet, quoniam nec siccitates nec austros in flore sustinet; quae utraque incommoda fere eo 20tempore anni sunt, quo deflorescit. Cicer, quod arietillum4 vocatur, itemque alterius generis, quod Punicum, seri mense Martio toto potest caelo umido, loco quam laetissimo; nam etiam id terram laedit atque ideo improbatur a callidioribus agricolis. Quod tamen si seri debeat, pridie macerandum erit, ut celerius enascatur. Iugero modii tres abunde sunt.

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Cannabis solum pingue stercoratumque et riguum vel planum atque umidum et alte subactum deposcit. In quadratum pedem seruntur grana sex eius

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Book II

of Octobera on ground that lacks moisture. It usually requires a loamy soil, such as the Campanians call pullum; still it thrives no less well even in rich sand or in mixed ground.b The same quantity of seed is sown to the iugerum as of millet and panic, sometimes even two sextariic more. But I have seen this same seed sown in the months of June and July in districts of Cilicia and Syria, and harvested during the autumn, when it was fully ripe.

The chick-pea or the chickling-vetch, which has a19 resemblance to the pea, should be sown in January or February in rich soil if the weather is moist; though in some sections of Italy the sowing is made before the first of November. Three modii are sufficient for one iugerum. No legume is less hurtful to land; but it seldom does well, because, when in bloom, it cannot endure dry weather or south winds; and both these drawbacks usually attend the season when it drops its blossoms.d The chick-pea which is20 called arietillum,e and also one of another variety, called Punicum, may be sown during the whole month of March, if the weather is moist, in the most fertile soil; indeed, this kind is harmful to land and for that reason is not approved by the more expert farmers. If it must be sown, however, it should be soaked a day ahead to hasten its germination. Three modii are enough for one iugerum.

Hemp demands a rich, manured, well-watered soil,21 or one that is level, moist, and deeply worked. Six grains of this seed to the square foot are planted at

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DOI: 10.4159/DLCL.columella-agriculture.1941