Marcus Cato

quod eius facere poteris, vitis facito uti ducas. Arbores hoc modo putentur, rami uti divaricentur, quos relinques, et uti recte caedantur et ne nimium crebri relinquantur. 2Vites bene nodentur; per omnes ramos diligenter caveto ne vitem praecipites et ne nimium praestringas. Arbores facito uti bene maritae sint vitesque uti satis multae adserantur et, sicubi opus erit, de arbore deiciantur, uti in terram deprimantur, et biennio post praecidito veteres.

XXXIII. Viniam sic facito uti curetur. Vitem bene nodatam deligato recte, flexuosa uti ne sit, susum vorsum semper ducito, quod eius poteris. Vinarios custodesque recte relinquito. Quam altissimam viniam facito alligatoque recte, dum ne nimium constringas. Hoc modo eam curato. Capita vitium 2per sementim ablaqueato. Vineam putatam circumfodito, arare incipito, ultro citroque sulcos perpetuos ducito. Vites teneras quam primum propagato, sic occato; veteres quam minimum castrato, potius, si opus erit, deicito biennioque post praecidito. Vitem novellam resicari tum erit tempus, ubi valebit. 3Si vinea a vite calva erit, sulcos interponito ibique viveradicem serito, umbram ab sulcis removeto crebroque fodito. In vinea vetere serito ocinum, si macra erit (quod granum capiat ne serito), et circum capita addito stercus, paleas, vinaceas, aliquid 4horum, quo rectius valeat. Ubi vinea frondere coeperit, pampinato. Vineas novellas alligato crebro,


On Agriculture

possible, train them to grow vertically. The trees should be trimmed as follows: The branches which you leave should spread out, should be cut straight up, and should not be left too thick. The vines should be well knotted1; and be especially careful not to bend them downward along any of the branches and not to tie them too tightly. See that the trees are well “wedded,”2 and that a sufficient number of vines are planted for them; and wherever it is necessary let these be detached from the trees and buried in the ground, and two years later cut them off from the old stock.

XXXIII. Have the vineyard treated as follows: Tie a well-knotted vine straight up, keeping it from bending, and make it grow vertically, so far as you can. Leave fruit-bearing shoots and reserve stubs3 at proper intervals. Train the vines as high as possible and tie them firmly, but without choking them. Cultivate as follows: At seed-time trench the soil around the crown of the vine, and after pruning cultivate around it. Begin ploughing, and run straight furrows back and forth. Set out young vines as early as possible, then harrow; prune the old ones very slightly, or rather, if you need cuttings, layer the branches and take off the cuttings two years later. The proper time for cutting back the young plant is when it is strong. If there are gaps in the rows, run furrows and plant rooted cuttings, keep the furrows clear of shade, and cultivate frequently. In an old vineyard sow clover if the soil is lean(do not sow anything that will form a head), and around the roots apply manure, straw, grape dregs, or anything of the sort, to make it stronger. When the vine begins to form leaves, thin them. Tie up the young vines at frequent

DOI: 10.4159/DLCL.cato-agriculture.1934