ὑπωρείῃσιν ᾤκισται ἡ Νῦσα, Μηρὸς κληίζεται ἐπὶ τῇ συμφορῇ ᾗτινι ἐχρήσατο εὐθὺς γενόμενος. 7ταῦτα μὲν οἱ ποιηταὶ ἐπὶ Διονύσῳ ἐποίησαν, καὶ ἐξηγείσθων αὐτὰ ὅσοι λόγιοι Ἑλλήνων ἢ βαρβάρων· 8ἐν Ἀσσακηνοῖσι δὲ Μάσσακα, πόλις μεγάλη, ἵναπερ καὶ τὸ κράτος τῆς γῆς ἐστι τῆς Ἀσσακίης· καὶ ἄλλη πόλις Πευκελαῗτις, μεγάλη καὶ αὐτή, οὐ μακρὰν τοῦ Ἰνδοῦ. ταῦτα μὲν ἔξω τοῦ Ἰνδοῦ ποταμοῦ ᾤκισται πρὸς ἑσπέρην ἔστε ἐπὶ τὸν Κωφῆνα·
2. τὰ δὲ ἀπὸ τοῦ Ἰνδοῦ πρὸς ἕω, τοῦτό μοι ἔστω ἡ Ἰνδῶν γῆ καὶ Ἰνδοὶ οὗτοι ἔστωσαν.
ὅροι δὲ τῆς Ἰνδῶν γῆς πρὸς μὲν βορέου ἀνέμου 2ὁ Ταῦρος τὸ ὄρος. καλέεται δὲ οὐ Ταῦρος ἔτι ἐν τῇ γῇ ταύτῃ, ἀλλὰ ἄρχεται μὲν ἀπὸ θαλάσσης ὁ Ταῦρος τῆς κατὰ Παμφύλους τε καὶ Λυκίην καὶ Κίλικας παρατείνει τε ἔστε τὴν πρὸς ἕω θάλασσαν, 3τέμνων τὴν Ἀσίην πᾶσαν, ἄλλο δὲ ἄλλῃ καλέεται τὸ ὄρος, τῇ μὲν Παραπάμισος, τῇ δὲ Ἠμωδός, ἄλλῃ δὲ Ἴμαον κληίζεται, καὶ τυχὸν ἄλλα καὶ ἄλλα 4ἔχει οὐνόματα. Μακεδόνες δὲ οἱ ξὺν Ἀλεξάνδρῳ στρατεύσαντες Καύκασον αὐτὸ ἐκάλεον, ἄλλον τοῦτον Καύκασον, οὐ τὸν Σκυθικόν, ὡς καὶ [τὸν] ἐπέκεινα τοῦ Καυκάσου λόγον κατέχειν ὅτι 5ἦλθεν Ἀλέξανδρος. τὰ πρὸς ἑσπέρην δὲ τῆς Ἰνδῶν γῆς ὁ ποταμὸς ὁ Ἰνδὸς ἀπείργει ἔστε ἐπὶ τὴν μεγάλην θάλασσαν, ἵναπερ αὐτὸς κατὰ δύο στόματα ἐκδιδοῖ, οὐ συνεχέα ἀλλήλοισι τὰ στόματα, 6κατάπερ τὰ πέντε τοῦ Ἴστρου ἐστὶ συνεχέα, ἀλλ᾿ ὡς τὰ τοῦ Νείλου, ὑπ᾿ ὅτων τὸ Δέλτα ποιέεται τὸ Αἰγύπτιον, ὧδέ τι καὶ τῆς Ἰνδῶν γῆς Δέλτα ποιέει ὁ Ἰνδὸς ποταμός, οὐ μεῖον τοῦ Αἰγυπτίου, καὶ τοῦτο
hills Nysa is built, is also called Merus (thigh) because of the incident at the moment of Dionysus’ birth. All this the poets sang of Dionysus; and I leave interpretation7 to learned Greeks or barbarians. In8 Assacenian territory lies Massaca, a great city which has the dominion in the Assacian land, and another city Peucelaïtis, which is also large, not far from the Indus. These then are the inhabited places beyond the Indus west to the river Cophen.
2. It is the parts east of the Indus that I shall call India, and its inhabitants Indians.
The northern boundary of the land of India is Mount Taurus. That is not the name given to it in this land:2 in fact, while Taurus begins from the sea by Pamphylia and Lycia and Cilicia and reaches as far as the Eastern Ocean, cutting right through Asia, the3 mountain has different names in different places: in one Parapamisus, in another Emodus, elsewhere Imaon, and perhaps it has all sorts of other names. The Macedonians who fought with Alexander called4 it Caucasus, a different Caucasus from the Scythian; so that the story ran that Alexander penetrated beyond the Caucasus.1 The western part of India is5 bounded by the river Indus right down to the Ocean, where it runs out by two mouths, not joined together like the five2 mouths of the Ister, but like those of the6 Nile which form the Egyptian delta; an Indian delta is formed in the same way by the river Indus, as large as the Egyptian, and is called Patala in the Indian
- 1Cf. v 5, 1–4; S. xv 1, 11; App. XII 3. This chapter comes from E. Emodus and Imaon (6, 4), meaning ‘snowy’ (Pliny, NH vi 64, cf. Sanskrit ‘himavat’), represent the Himalayas.
- 2Evidently from E., cf. i 3, 2; v 4, 1; A. repeats what he finds in his source, ignorant or oblivious of the 7 mouths known since Augustus’ time (RE iv 2117 f.).